Meaning/Definition of Substance and Commercial Agriculture | Features/Advantages and Disadvantages of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture SSS 1 – Agricultural Science

 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL (SSS 1)

THEME: BASIC CONCEPTS

PREVIOUS LESSON – Agricultural Science Plan Lesson Notes for Senior Secondary Schools – SSS 1

 

TOPIC – SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

 

LEARNING AREA

1. Introduction to Agriculture

2. Meaning/Definition of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture

3. Advantages/Features of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture

4. Disadvantages of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture

5. Lesson Evaluation and Weekly Assessment (Test)

 

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 

By the end of the lesson, most of the students should have attained the following objectives –

1. Explain the meaning of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

2. Enumerate characteristics of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture for comparison.

 

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

The students can define agriculture.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of chart showing different tools used in both subsistence and commercial agriculture.

 

 

METHOD OF TEACHING

Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons. 

 

REFERENCE MATERIALS

1. Scheme of Work

2. National Curriculum SSS Classes

3. Course Book

4. All Relevant Material

5. Online Information

 

CONTENT OF THE LESSON

INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is one of the oldest and most important occupations of mankind. The practice of agriculture involves production of crops and animals. After the production, the crops and animals are further processing for commercial purposes.

Agriculture can be define as the growing of crops, rearing of animals, processing and selling of agricultural products for the benefit of man (for man’s use).

 

 

Currently, agriculture is divided into two different types, including subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture.

 

MEANING/DEFINITION OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

Subsistence agriculture is the production of food mainly for personal consumption. The size of farmland is determined by the size of the family. Subsistence agriculture made use of crude implements like hoe, cutlass, axes, knife, etc.

 

FEATURES/ADVANTAGES OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE 

1. It is mainly for personal consumption.

2. It is mainly labour intensive.

3. It is practiced on small area.

4. It is enhanced through the use of manures.

5. Crude tools are used.

6. It is mostly seasonal.

7. It is cheap and cost effective.

8. It requirement little investment.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

1. Low productivity.

2. The size of the farm is small and may not support large farming.

 

 

3. Farm is limited by the size of the family.

4. Family labours are not reliable.

5. Easy spread of pests and diseases.

6. Farming not possible with high population.

7. Lack of continuity.

8. Labours are unskilled.

9. Lack of storage facilities.

10. Illiteracy and ignorance.

 

MEANING/DEFINITION OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

Commercial agriculture is the production of cash crops mainly for the purpose of trade. Commercial agriculture ensures large scale of agricultural production.

 

FEATURES/ADVANTAGES OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE 

1. It is mainly for the purpose of trade.

2. It is mainly capital intensive.

3. It is practiced on large area.

4. It is enhanced through the use of modern input like fertilizer.

5. Machines are used.

 

 

6. The use of irrigation made farming to be possible throughout the season.

7. It is expensive.

8. It is huge investment.

9. Labours are both skilled and semi skilled.

10. High productivity.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

1. It is very expensive to manage.

2. It requires huge capital.

3. Problem of land tenure system.

4. Unfavourable weather

5. Pests and Diseases infestation.

6. Poor measure of value.

9. Natural disasters.

10. Unfavourable government policies.

11. Inadequate infrastructure such as good roads, medical facilities, electricity, etc.

 

FIELD TRIP TO THE NEAREST SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

 

PRESENTATION

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the students some questions; then, the teacher –

2. Discusses the meaning and differences of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

 

 

Student’s Activities – Participate in class discussion.

3. States the advantages and disadvantages of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

Student’s Activities – State and explain the advantages and disadvantages of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

4. Lists the problems of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

Student’s Activities – State the problems of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

5. Plans field trips to commercial farms and small holder farms in the locality.

Student’s Activities – Participate in field trips to commercial farms and small holder farms in the locality.

6. Summarizes the lesson on the board.

Student’s Activities – Copy as the teacher writes.

 

CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.

 

LESSON EVALUATION 

Ask students to:

1. Explain the meaning of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

2. Highlight the differences between the two.