BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THEME – HUMAN BODY
PERIOD – THREE (3)
PREVIOUS LESSON – HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
TOPIC – JOINTS AND MUSCLES
1. Meaning of Joints
2. Types of Joints
3. Meaning of Muscles
4. Functions of Joints and Muscles
By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –
1. differentiate between joints and muscles.
2. identify different types of joints.
3. state the importance of joints and muscles.
The pupils can identify bones in the body.
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of –
chart showing human skeletal system.
METHOD OF TEACHING
Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.
Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.
Scheme of Work
9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum
All Relevant Material
Copy as I write or draw as I draw. This instruction should be given when you need the pupils to write or draw.
CONTENT OF THE LESSON
LESSON 1 – INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES
Teacher’s Activities – Display sample or chart showing human skeletal system, ask the pupils to describe the connection between all the bones from the skull to the toes.
Pupil’s response – Examine the skeletal system and describe their connection.
Teacher’s remark – Listen to the pupils and give a great cheer for their active participation.
The skull in the head is connected to the bones in the neck. The bones in the hand is connected to the bones in the arm to the shoulder, etc. No bones are independent. They are all meet and join together.
Lead the pupils locate different joints of the body in order to define joint. Summary the meaning on the board.
MEANING OF JOINT
Joints are the places where bones of the body meet and join together.
THE MAJOR JOINTS IN THE BODY
Joints could be fixed and movable. The following are the major joints in body –
1. Shoulder joint
2. Elbow joint
3. Hip joint
4. Ankle joint
5. Knee joint
Teacher’s/Pupil’s Activities – Examine the chart again and point to the above joints.
LESSON 2 – DEMONSTRATE ALL THE MAJOR JOINTS TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN FIXED AND MOVABLE JOINTS
Teacher’s Activities – Ask the pupils, touch the position of the joints in your body and move the bone at the joints.
Quick questions –
1. Which of the joints can turn around?
2. Which of the joints can only move to one side or direction?
Pupil’s response –
Note on the board for the pupils to copy as you write.
Joints that can turn around –
Joints that can move in one direction –
Teacher’s activities – Display chart of skeletal system, discuss the ball and socket joint found in the shoulder and hip and the hinge joint found in the elbow and knee with practical illustrations from individual body to differentiate between these joints.
Pupil’s response – Active participation.
Teacher’s remark – Comment and write the types of movable joints on the board.
TYPES OF MOVABLE JOINTS
1. The ball and socket joint.
This joint is found in the shoulder and hip and can turn around.
2. The hinge joint
This joint is found in the fingers, toes, elbows, knees, and ankles contain hinge joints and can only move in one direction back and forth.
LESSON 3 – INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES
Teacher’s Activities – Lead the pupils in the following activities:
- Feel the muscles in your arms and thighs.
- Move your right arm up and down.
- Observe the changes in the body (arms and legs).
Pupil’s response – Changes in muscles
Teacher’s remark – There are contraction and relaxation of muscles in the arms and legs. Ask the pupils to show their muscles and discuss. Note the meaning on the board.
MEANING OF MUSCLES
Muscles are the body tissues (fleshy) that make movement from one place to another possible.
Teacher’s/Pupil’s Activities – Display chart showing major muscles in the body, guide the pupils to identify the major muscles in the body and discuss.
MAJOR MUSCLES IN THE BODY
The major muscles in the body are –
1. Biceps muscles of the arm.
2. Triceps muscles of the arm.
3. Biceps muscles of the leg.
4. Triceps muscles of the leg.
5. Chest muscles
FUNCTIONS OF JOINTS AND MUSCLES
1. Muscles pull on the joints.
2. allowing us to move from one place to another.
3. also help the body perform other functions such as chewing food.
To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:
1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;
2. Lets pupils examine the chart.
Pupil’s Activities – Identify Joints and muscles in the body.
3. Asks pupils to explain what joints and muscles are.
Pupil’s Activities – Differentiate between muscles and joints in the body.
4. Discusses the functions of joints and muscles in the body.
Pupil’s Activities – State the functions of joints and muscles.
To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.
Ask pupils to:
1. mention the body parts we need for movement.
2. identify and name 4 major joints in the body.
3. differentiate between joints and muscles.
4. state the importance of joints and muscles.
ATTEMPT ALL THE QUESTIONS
1. __________________ are the places where bones of the body meet and join together.
2. __________________ joint is found in the shoulder and hip and can turn around.
A. The hinge
B. Ball and socket
C. Ball and bat
3. __________________ joint is found in the fingers, toes, elbows, knees, and ankles contain hinge joints and can only move in one direction back and forth.
A. The hinge
B. Ball and socket
C. Ball and bat
4. __________________ are the body tissues (fleshy) that make movement from one place to another possible.
Mention 2 major joints in the body.
Mention 2 major muscles in the body.
Mention 2 functions of joints and muscles.