Meaning of Soil Fertility | Causes of Loss in Soil Fertility or How Soil can loose its Fertility Primary 4 (Basic 4) Agriculture

Last Updated on August 27, 2021 by Alabi M. S.

 

AGRICULTURE 

PREVOCATIONAL STUDIES

FIRST TERM 

WEEK 6

PRIMARY 4

THEME – AGRICULTURE 

PREVIOUS LESSON – Process of Formation of Soil | How Soils are Formed | Factors of Soil Formation Primary 4 (Basic 4) – Agriculture

 

TOPIC – WAYS SOIL LOSSES ITS FERTILITY 

 

LEARNING AREA

1. Introductory Activities

2. Meaning of Soil Fertility

3. Causes LOSS in Soil Fertility

4. Lesson Evaluation and Weekly Assessment (Test)

 

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to:

1. explain soil fertility

2. mention the causes of soil fertility.

3. attempt 70% (and above) of weekly assessment correctly.

 

ENTRY BEHAVIOR

The pupils can identify the good soil for plants growth.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:

 

1. Soil samples – sandy, clayey and loamy

2. Funnel

3. Water

4. Measuring glass

5. Filter paper

6. Cotton wool

7. Pots

8. Maize grains.

 

PRE – ACTIVITIES

1. Collects samples of fertile soil (loamy) and non – fertile soil (sandy) in separate pots.

2. Plants maize in the pots to illustrate effect of soil fertility level on the plants.

3. Pupil’s Activities – Participate in carrying out the experiments set up by the teacher.

 

METHOD OF TEACHING

Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons. 

 

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of Work

9 – Basic Education Curriculum

Course Books

All Relevant Materials

Online Materials

 

CONTENT OF THE LESSON

LESSON 1 – INTRODUCTION

Soil is the upper layer of the earth where plants grow. There different soil types. The most fertility soil is loamy soil. While other soils are used for other purposes.

 

MEANING OF SOIL FERTILITY

Soil fertility is the ability of soil to sustain agricultural plant growth by providing essential plant nutrients.

 

When the soil loss its fertility, it can support agricultural plants.

 

CAUSES OF LOSS IN SOIL FERTILITY 

1. Burning

2. Leaching

3. Overgrazing

4. Land Cleaning/Clearing

5. Excessive use of chemicals

6. Deforestation

7. Erosion

 

ASSIGNMENT

Find out how the bush burning, leaching, overgrazing, land clearing, etc. causes loss in soil fertility.

 

LESSON 2 – CAUSES OF LOSS IN SOIL FERTILITY (CONTINUITY) 

1. BUSH BURNING 

Bush burning is the use of fire to remove natural vegetation that protect the soil.

Bush burning destroyed the soil and organic materials of the soil. Soil never recovered easy after bush burning. It will take time or years before the soil recovered its nutrients.

 

2. LEACHING

Leaching is when the soil nutrients are drained because of too much of water.

 

3. OVERGRAZING 

Overgrazing is when too many animals continuously and repeatedly eaten up the grass covered.

 

This culture will exposed the soil nutrients to sunlight, wind and water erosion. Finally, destroyed the soil nutrients.

 

4. LAND CLEARING 

Land cleaning is the deliberate removal of natural vegetation by man for different purposes.

These activities expose the soil nutrients to sunlight and erosion.

 

5. EXCESSIVE USE OF CHEMICAL

Insecticide, pesticides and chemical fertilizer are good chemicals for controlling insects, pests and improving crop yields.

Excessive use of chemicals can affect the micro organisms in the soil.

 

6. DEFORESTATION

Deforestation is the cutting down of trees for economic purposes.

This practice if not controlled will expose the soil nutrients to leaching and erosion.

 

7. EROSION 

Erosion is a washing away of top layer of the soil.

Soil erosion is inevitable after bushing burning, leaching, overgrazing and clean clearing.

The loose and unprotected soil is easily away soil and all its nutrients.

 

ASSIGNMENT

Find out to enrich soil.

 

PRESENTATION

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;

1. Leads pupils to participate in class discussion on soil fertility.

Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the class discussion.

2. Asks pupils to examine the plants growth of the the pots and discuss.

 

Pupil’s Activities – Discuss the plants growth of the two pots.

3. Creates different activities that lead pupils to identify and discuss how soil lose their fertility.

4. Summary each lesson on the board.

Pupil’s Activities – Copy as the teacher writes.

 

CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.

 

NEXT LESSON

Ways of making the Soil Fertile or How to Maintain Soil Fertility Primary 4 (Basic 4) – Agriculture

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Ask pupils to:

1. What is the best soil for farming?

 

2. State 3 ways soil can loose it fertility.

3. Suggest way of protecting soil fertility.

 

 

WORKBOOK

WEEKLY ASSESSMENT (TEST)

1. ______ is the upper layer of the earth where plants grow.

A. Sand

B. Soil

C. Sandy

 

2. The most fertility soil is ______ soil.

A. Clay

B. Loamy

C. Sandy

 

3. ______ is the ability of soil to sustain agricultural plant growth by providing essential plant nutrients.

A. Soil manure

B. Soil fertilizer

C. Soil fertility

 

4. ______ is the use of fire to remove natural vegetation that protect the soil.

A. Leaching

B. Overgrazing

C. Bush burning

 

5. Leaching is when the soil nutrients are drained because of ______.

 

A. too much of water

B. too little water

C. no water

 

6. ______ is when too many animals continuously and repeatedly eaten up the grass covered.

A. Leaching

B. Overgrazing

C. Bush burning

 

8. ______ is the deliberate removal of natural vegetation by man for different purposes.

 

9. ______ is a washing away of top layer of the soil.

A. Emotion

B. Erosion

C. Elusion

 

10. Soil erosion is inevitable after bushing burning, leaching, overgrazing and clean clearing.

 

A. True

B. False

 

11. The loose and unprotected soil cannot away soil and all its nutrients.

A. False

B. True

 

12. When the soil loss its fertility, it can support agricultural plants.

A. True

B. False

 

13. The most fertility soil is loamy soil. While other soils are used for other purposes.

A. False

B. True

 

14. Bush burning protects the soil and organic materials of the soil.

A. False

B. True

 

15. Soil can recover easy after bush burning. It takes just few days before the soil recovered its nutrients.

 

A. True

B. False

 

16. Excessive use of chemicals can affect the micro organisms in the soil.

A. False

B. True

 

17. Deforestation is the planting of economic trees.

A. True

B. False

 

Use the following option – loamy soil, bush burning, layer, leaching, erosion, soil fertility, overgrazing and land clearing to answer question 18 – 25.

18. ______ is when the soil nutrients are drained because of too much of water.

 

19. ______ is when too many animals continuously and repeatedly eaten up the grass covered.

 

20. ______ is the use of fire to remove natural vegetation that protect the soil.

 

21. ______ is the deliberate removal of natural vegetation by man for different purposes.

 

22. ______ is a washing away of top layer of the soil.

 

23. ______ is the ability of soil to sustain agricultural plant growth by providing essential plant nutrients.

 

24. The most fertility soil is ______.

 

25. Soil is the top ______ of the earth where plants grow.