BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS
PREVIOUS LESSON – As Stated in Second Term (Term 2) Week 1 Plan Lesson Notes for Primary Schools
TOPIC – SOIL
2. Meaning of Soil and Soil Constituents
3. Identification of Soil Constituents
4. Demonstrating the existence of Soil Constituents
5. Lesson Evaluation and Weekly Assessment
By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives –
1. explain the meaning of soil and soil constituents.
2. identify and name some soil constituents.
3. demonstrate the existence of soil constituents.
5. state the importance of soil.
The pupils can state the importance of soil.
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:
1. Samples of soil
2. Hand towel
3. Sheets of paper
METHOD OF TEACHING
Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.
Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.
Scheme of Work
9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum
All Relevant Material
CONTENT OF THE LESSON
LESSON 1 – INTRODUCTION
Soil consists of inorganic particles and organic matter.
Soil provides the structural support to plants used in agriculture.
It is also their source of water and nutrients
MEANING OF SOIL AND SOIL CONSTITUENTS
MEANING OF SOIL
Soil is the top layer of the earth’s surface.
Soil constituents are the living and non – living things inside the soil.
For examples –
2. Leaf litters
5. Dead animals
6. Living animals
8. Soil particles – sand, loam and clay.
EXISTENCE OF SOIL CONSTITUENTS
Materials needed for demonstrating the existence of soil constituents are –
1. filter (to separate the soil from other soil materials),
2. water (to separate the soil from other soil materials. This allows the soil to settle down with other soil materials float), and
3. heat (to make all living organisms come out from the soil).
Teacher’s activities – Guide the pupils to prove the existence of soil constituents.
LESSON 2 – TYPES OF SOIL
There are three (3) major soil,
1. Sandy soil
2. Clay soil
3. Loamy soil
MEANING OF SANDY SOIL
Sandy soil is the loose parts of the soil used for building of houses and construction of roads.
MEANING OF CLAY SOIL
Clay soil is the solid parts of the soil used for moulding and building of houses.
MEANING OF LOAMY SOIL
Loamy soil is the best parts of the soil used for growing crops.
It combines the good parts of clay and sandy.
IMPORTANCE OF SOIL
1. It is used for building.
2. It is used for making blocks.
3. It is used for road construction.
4. It is used for agricultural purposes.
5. It is used for moulding.
6. It is used for bridge construction.
7. It is used for design and decoration.
LESSON 3 – REVISION AND WEEKLY ASSESSMENT
As state in the performance objectives or lesson evaluation.
Other Materials – Meaning of Soil | Meaning of Soil Constituents | Existence of Soil Constituents Primary 4 (Basic 4) ASEI PDSI METHOD
To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:
1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;
2. Take pupils on field to collect soil samples.
3. Uses the soil samples to introduce the lesson and asks pupils to describe the soil.
Pupil’s Activities – Identify, collect soil samples and describe.
4. Organizes the class in groups or pairs and asks pupils to collect soil samples from the school garden and guides them to handpick visible soil constituents.
Pupil’s Activities – Bring samples of garden soil to class and hand pick visible soil constituents like leaf litters, small, rocks, dead and living organisms, etc.
5. Notes all the soil constituents identified on the board and add other soil constituents not available in the available soil samples.
Pupil’s Activities – Write as instructed.
6. Uses the soil samples to guide pupils to examine and identify the colour, texture and particles of each soil sample.
Pupil’s Activities – Identify the colour, texture and particles of each soil sample.
7. Writes the types of soil on the board and leads a discussion on each type.
Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the class discussion.
8. Displays chart showing the importance of soil.
9. Lets pupils to study the chart carefully and describe.
Pupil’s Activities – Study the chart, identify and describe the content of the chart.
10. Uses pupil’s responses to lead a discussion on the importance of soil.
Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the class discussion and state the importance of agriculture.
11. Summarizes the lesson on the board.
Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the summary and write as instructed.
To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.
Next Lesson – Growing of Plants – Soil Preparation | Planting and Nurturing of Plants Primary 4/Basic 4 Term 2 Week 4 Basic Science
Asks pupils to –
1. explain what soil is.
2. describe the soil constituents.
3. give 5 (5) examples of soil constituents.
4. discuss the used of filter, water and heat to prove the existence of soil constituents.
ATTEMPT ALL THE QUESTIONS
1. ________ is the top layer of the earth’s surface.
2. Soil constituents are the ________ inside the soil.
A. plants and animals
B. animal and plants
C. Living and non living things
3. ________ are the living and non – living things inside the soil.
A. Water Constituents
B. Soil Constituents
C. Rock Constituents
4. ________ is used to separate soil from other soil materials.
5. ________ make soil to settle down while other materials float.
6. ________ force out the living organisms out of the soil.
State 2 soil constituents.
Mention 3 materials used for proving the existence of soil Constituents.