# Physics SS 1 Curriculum Guides – Conservation Principles – Electric Charges, Heat Energy, Work, Energy and Power

**THEME – CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES**

**TOPIC 1 – ELECTRIC CHARGES **

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Glass, plastic/comb, wooden materials, silk cloth

2. Electroscope

3. Electrophorus

4. Chart showing the action on lightening conductors

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. charge a body by friction, induction and contact.

2. identify bodies charged either similarly or oppositely.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Production of Charges

2. Types of Charges

3. Distribution of Charges

4. Storage of Charges

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher,

1. guides the students in producing charges using different methods.

2. guides the students to make simple electroscope and use it to detect and compare charges on differently shaped bodies.

3. leads discussion on action at a point to explain lightening conductors.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIESThe students,

1. produce charges by:

- rubbing two suitable materials against each other.

- placing a charged body near an uncharged body.

- placing a charged body in contact with an uncharged body.
2. make simple electroscope and use it to detect and compare changes on differently shaped bodies.

3. use electrophorus to transfer and store charges.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. show understanding of how charges are produced, identified, distributed and stored.

2. use gild-leaf electroscope.

3. students to explain point action of lightening conductors.

**THEME – CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES**

**TOPIC 2 – HEAT ENERGY **

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Thermometers, ball and ring apparatus

2. Bar beaker apparatus

3. Wax, burner, beaker, water or alcohol iodine (camplier/naplithrelene balls,

4. Linear expansivity apparatus, density bottle and liquid, heat source

5. Differentiate metal rods coated with wax and burner

6. Potassium permanganate crystals, beaker, water

7. A chart on land and sea breezes

8. Leslie cube, thermometers

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain temperature, expansion, change of state, and vaporization using the kinetic molecular theory

2. explain conduction, convection and radiation in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Concept of temperature

2. Effects of heat on change of state, expansion, vaporization

3. Expansivity

4. Transferred heat by conduction, convection and radiation

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher,

1. uses the kinetic theory to explain changes in temperatur.

2. shows that a gas expands when heated and explain this observation using kinetic molecular theory.

3. demonstrates linear, area and volume expansivity.

4. demonstrates convection current in water.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIESThe students,

1. Solve simple problems involving linear, area and volume expansivity.

2. Distinguish between good and bad conductors of heat using metals, water and air as examples.

3. Identify a better absorber of radiant heat between black and shining surface.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. show understanding of the concept of temperature and the effects of heat on matter.

2. solve the problems on linear area and volume expansivity.

3. show understanding on the application of heat transfer.

4. apply the knowledge of absorption of radiant energy in life

**THEME – CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES**

**TOPIC 3 – WORK, ENERGY AND POWER**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Chart showing the displacement of a box by a force acting:

- horizontally

- at an angle
2. Chart showing lifting of an object through a height h to show work done against gravity

3. Chart showing a falling object through a height h as work done by gravity

4. Stop watch, meter rule to measure power (e.g. Climbing of a stair)

5. Chart showing energy conversions

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain work, energy and power and give example of each.

2. calculate,

- the workdone, given a force and displacement it produces in its direction.

- the gravitational potential energy at a height h above a given reference plane.
3. calculate the power in watts, given an applied force and the time it takes to produce a displacement.

4. identify the type of energy possessed by a body under given conditions.

5. distinguish between kinetic energy and potential energy.

6. identify energy transformation from one form into another.

7. State the law of conservation of energy.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Concept of work, energy and power

2. Interchangebility of work and energy

3. Determination of work, energy and power

4. Work done in a force field

5. Types of energy (mechanical):

- potential energy

- kinetic energy

6. Conservation of mechanical energy

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher demonstrates how to use the definitions and kinetic energy and power to solve simple problems.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students, from the definitions of work, energy and power, solve simple problems on,

1. work done by a force applied through a given distance.

2. work done in a force field in:

- lifting a body

- falling bodies
3. energy and power.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,;

1. explain the concepts of work, energy and power.

2. solve simple word problems on work, energy and power.

3. apply the concepts of work, energy and power in their environment.

4. show understanding of energy conversion