# Physics SS 2 Curriculum Guides – Vector, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration, Simple Harmonic Motion, Projectile, Position, Distance and Displacement, Equilibrium Forces and Equation of Uniform Acceleration Motion

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 1 – VECTOR **

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Force boards, pulleys or nails, standard weights thread, ruler and protractor.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the meaning of the resultant of vectors.

2. resolve a vector with a given direction.

3. resolve any number of vectors into two components at right angles to each other.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Concept of vectors

2. Vector representation

3. Addition of vectors

4. Resolution of vectors.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher given worked examples involving resolution and addition of vectors using analytical and graphical methods.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIESThe students use the force board to determine the resultant of two forces.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to solve problems on addition and resolution of vectors by calculation and graphical methods. Solve problems on the resultant of vectors.

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 2 – SPEED, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Ticker-timer, pendulum bob, thread, stop watch/clock, metre rule, retort stand, graph paper/book, ruler and graph board.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. show that speed is a scalar quantity while velocity and acceleration are vectors.

2. calculate resultant using simple examples of motion of objects with one or two changes in direction.

3. show on a (v – t) graph the motion of a body with:

- uniform velocity

- uniform acceleration

- variable acceleration/instantaneous velocity
4. deduce the distance covered between any time intervals on the graph in (3) above.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Speed as a scalar quantity.

2. Velocity and acceleration as vector quantities.

3. Concept of resultant velocity using vector representation.

4. V – t graphs.

5. Instantaneous velocity and acceleration.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher demonstrate how to obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIESThe students,

1. use the ticker-timer and the simple pendulum to determine acceleration due to gravity.

2. Plot graphs of uniformly accelerated motion of a body.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. answer questions that requires the explanation of the difference between scalar and vector quantities giving examples.

2. solve simple problems on uniform motion.

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 3 – SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Simple pendulum. Spiral spring, test-tube, lead shots/sand, water, beaker resonance tube, glass cylinder and tuning forks

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define simple harmonic motion.

2. show the relationship between:

- linear and angular speed.

- linear acceleration and angular acceleration.
3. show the relationship between period and frequency.

4. calculate the energy in the system.

5. explain forced vibration and resonance.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Definition of simple harmonic motion

2. Speed and acceleration of simple harmonic motion.

3. Period frequency and amplitude of simple harmonic motion.

4. Energy of simple harmonic motion.

5. Forced vibration and resonance.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher,

1. use the simple pendulum spiral spring with mass hanging on it, loaded test tube oscillating in a liquid to illustrate simple harmonic motion.

2. give worked examples on simple harmonic motion.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students use the principle of simple harmonic motion to determine the value of ‘g’ experimentally.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. simple harmonic motion.

2. linear and angular speed.

3. linear and angular acceleration.

4. solve simple problems on simple harmonic motion.

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 4 – PROJECTILE**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Rubber ball, catapult, metre rule, small pebbles and stop clock/watch.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify a projectile motion.

2. derive the range, maximum height and time of flight.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Concept of projectile.

2. Simple problems involving range, height and time of flight.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher,

1. throw rubber ball against a vertical wall and watch the path the ball takes as it bounces back.

2. give worked simple exercises on projectiles.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Use a catapult to project pebbles of the same size with reasonable constant velocities and watch the path taken till they hit the ground.

2. Vary the angle of projection to study the corresponding variations in range.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. explain range maximum height and time of flight.

2. solve simple problems involving these concepts.

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 5 – POSITION, DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Graph paper or book, ruler, graph, board, etc.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to use the Cartesian system to locate the position of object on the x – y plane.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Concept of position and position coordinate

2. Frames of reference

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher use the rectangular coordinate axis (x – y) to show position of objects.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIESThe students use the rectangular coordinate axis to locate the position of the point(s) in a plane.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to plot points and draw inference from the graph.

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 6 – EQUILIBRIUM OF FORCES**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Force board, pulleys or nails standard weights thread, ruler and protractor

2. Metre rule, threads standard weights knife edge, funnel, spring balance, beaker, water, sand, pieces of stone or weight

3. Pieces of cork or wood floating ship, toy, balloon, hot air balloon

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. distinguish between resultant and equilibrant forces.

2. explain the concept of equilibrium and distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium.

3. explain the conditions that must be satisfied if an object is to be kept in equilibrium by the action of non-parallel forces.

4. explain what is meant by the moment of a force about a point.

5. explain what is meant by the centre of gravity of a body and identify its position for some regular uniform bodies.

6. name and identify three types of equilibrium with respect to the stability of an object.

7. explain the effect of centre of gravity on the stability of a body.

8. identify the forces acting on a body completely immersed in a liquid and establish the condition for the body to float on the liquid.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Resultant and equilibrant forces

2. Parallel forces

3. Moment of a force (Torgue)

4. Centre of gravity and equilibrium

5. Equilibrium of bodies in liquids

6. Archimedes’ principle

7. Law of floatation

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher,

1. illustrate the principle of moments and give worked examples based on it

2. show with simple examples the stability of bodies

3. lead discussion of the application of law of floatation

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIESThe students,

1. use the force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces

2. verify Achimedes’ principle and the law of floation.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. explain resultant and equilibrant forces.

2. explain the concept of equilibrium.

3. state the conditions for equilibrium under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces.

4. explain concept of moment of a force about a point.

5. solve the problems on principles of moments.

6. explain the concept of centre of gravity, and or equilibrium of bodies in fluids to explain the concept of floatation.

7. answer questions on application of law of floatation

**THEME – INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE AND TIME**

**TOPIC 7 – EQUATION OF UNIFORMLY ACCELERATED MOTION**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

(v – t) graph

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. deduce the three equations of motion from a (v – t) graph with initial velocity and constant acceleration.

2. explain the terms used in the equation of motion.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

Application and interpretation of equations of motion in simple problems.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIESThe teacher derive the three equations of uniformly accelerated motion.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students use the equations of uniformly accelerated motion to solve simple problems.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. deduce the three equations of motion using (v – t) graph.

2. interpret and apply the three equations of motion.