# Basic Technology JSS 2 Curriculum Guides – Transmission of Electricity | Energy Based Technological Appliances | Simple Maintenance | Metal Work Hand Tools | Uses of Materials | Site Preparation | Setting Out | Information and Communication Technology | First Aid and Materials | Geometrical Construction – Lines | Plane Figures | Quadrilaterals and Polygons | Triangles | Circle and Angles

THEME – APPLIED ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Insulators aluminum cables, fuses, etc.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the meaning of transmission, distribution and utilization of electricity and their differences.

2. identify the equipment and materials used in transmission and distribution of electricity.

3. draw schematic diagrams of simple.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Transmission:

• low frequency
• high frequency

2. Distribution

3. Utilization

4. Materials and equipment – transformers, cables, insulators, separators, fuses, etc.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. define the concept of transmission, distribution and utilization; and explain their differences.

2. takes the students to a nearby substation or power station.

3. draws schematic diagrams to illustrate the stages and differences in simple transmission and distribution systems.

4. explains the difference between transmission at low and high frequencies.

5. illustrates with diagram how electricity is connected to residential and industrial buildings.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. listen attentively and participate in class discussions.

2. visit an electrical substation or power station accompanied by the teacher.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain the meaning of transmission, distribution and utilization of electricity.

2. mention the equipment and materials used for transmission, distribution and utilization of electricity.

3. draw schematic diagram of transmission and distribution systems.

THEME – ENERGY AND POWER

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Electric iron, immersion heater (boiling ring), kerosene stove, charcoal iron, refrigerator, compressors, alcohol, methylated spirit, electric fan, grinder, etc.

2. Improvised auto generator, diesel or petrol generators, bicycle dynamos.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify and explain the principles of appliances based on conversion of:

• electrical energy to heat energy.
• chemical energy to heat energy.
• electrical energy to mechanical energy.
• mechanical energy to electrical energy.

2. distinguish between generators and motors.

3. identify and explain principles of appliances based on electro-mechanical energy.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Principles of operation of pressing iron, electric kettle, cookers, water heaters, gas lamps, gas and kerosene cookers, charcoal pressing iron.

2. Principles of evaporation leading to cooling by refrigerants.

3. Operation of compressors as responsible for the circulation of the refrigerants.

4. Principles of operation of electric fan grinder.

5. Working principles of generators, bicycles, dynamos.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. explains and demonstrates burning of fuel: kerosene in stove, a chemical process.

2. explains the functions of refrigerants and compressors.

3. stresses the principle of evaporation as responsible for cooling.

4. displays appliances.

5. uses electric fan to demonstrate how the output of mechanical energy varies with the input of electrical energy.

6. displays various types of generators and motors.

7. explains the principles and operations of generators and motors.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. dismantle appliances and observe their parts.

2. use immersion heater to observe conversion of electric energy to heat energy.

3. use kerosene stove to demonstrate conversion of chemical energy to heat energy.

4. demonstrate with alcohol the orinciples of cooling and condensation in an enclosed space.

5. examine and identify appliances.

6. observe and identify generators and motors.

7. undertake excursion to the power station or dam.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain the principles of conversion of electrical energy to heat energy.

2. list some house hold appliances based on conversion of electrical energy into heat energy.

3. explain the operations of kerosene stove, charcoal iron, refrigerator compressors, electric fan.

4. identify parts of a refrigerator.

5. list appliances based on conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy.

6. list the features that differentiate generators from motors.

7. identify types of generators.

THEME – MAINTENANCE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Simple household furniture and appliances.

2. Cleaning materials/equipment

3. Common hand and power tools

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to carry out basic maintenance domestic appliances and furniture.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Simple maintenance methods: cleaning, dusting, washing, oiling, replacement of damaged parts etc

2. Care of common goods:

• kitchen wares: pots, cutlery and knives.
• electronics appliances e.g. radio, television, etc.
• other appliances refrigerator, fans, pressing iron, electric kettles, air-conditioners.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. demonstrates basic maintenance practice using common goods.

2. emphasizes the importance of instruction manuals.

3. stresses parts of goods that require regular inspection and care.

4. stresses correct and careful use and handling of tools and components with safety precautions.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. learn to correctly dismantle and assemble appliances.

2. practice cleaning, dusting, washing, oiling, repairing and replacement of components.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain maintenance of common domestic goods, e.g. furniture, kitchen wares etc.

2. undertake simple maintenance projects.

THEME – TOOLS AND MATERIALS

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Marking out tools, table, measuring tools, driving tools, and cutting tools

2. Models of shaped blocks

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify, describe, sketch and use metal work marking out tools.

2. identify, sketch, describe and use measuring tools and gauges.

3. identify, sketch, describe and use various driving tools.

4. identify, sketch, describe and use different types of cutting tools.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Marking out tools, e.g: surface plate, scriber odd-leg calipers, etc.

2. Measuring tools and gauges e.g: steel rule, protractors, etc.

3. Driving tools, e.g: punches, screw drivers, spanners, etc.

4. Cutting tools, e.g: chisels, files, etc.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher lists, displays, sketches, describes and demonstrates the uses of marking out measuring, driving and cutting tools and emphasizes safe handling.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. watch teacher’s demonstration.

2. examine, name, touch, describe and state the use of tool.

3. practice the use of each tool in carrying out projects.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. use marking out tools for simple work pieces.

2. take correct measurement with measuring tools.

3. carry out simple activities using driving tools.

4. use the tool to make projects.

THEME – MATERIALS AND PROCESSING

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Articles made from wood.

2. Materials made from metal and metal alloys.

3. Materials made from ceramics and glass.

4. Materials made from rubber.

5. Plastic products in school and homes.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state some common uses of wood.

2. explain specific uses of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and their alloys.

3. state some common uses of ceramics and glass.

4. state the uses of plastics.

### FOCUS LESSONS

Materials and their common uses:

1. Wood – furniture, toothpicks, building, constructions, handles of implements, etc.

2. Metals – household utensils, vehicle and ship parts etc.

3. Brass – decorations, ammunitions, etc.

4. Bronze – carving, statues and ornaments etc.

5. Ceramics – tiles, household utensils etc.

6. Rubber – tyres and tubes, foot wears etc.

7. Plastics – plastic buckets and bottles etc.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. discusses the various uses of wood and other non-wood materials in everyday life.

2. shows examples of the various uses.

3. displays ceramics, rubber products, etc.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. identify the materials made of wood.

2. visit furniture workshops.

3. visit factories and building sites and observe the uses of metals and alloys.

4. watch a documentary on the production and uses of metals and alloys.

5. observe and touch ceramics and glass wares.

6. inspect specimens of rubber and plastic products.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list five uses of wood.

2. name five items made of metals and metal alloys.

3. list three uses of ceramics and glass.

4. name three items made of rubber and plastics.

THEME – BUILDING

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Hand tools, posters and films

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. name and state the uses of tools and mechanical plants for site preparation.

2. describe techniques of site preparation.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Hand Tools – cutlasses, axe, hoes, diggers, etc.

2. Mechanical plants: reciprocating chain saw, bulldozer, pay loader,etc

3. Techniques of grubbing out roots, leveling the soil and exterminating termites.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. displays hand tools for site preparation.

2. names and describes mechanical plants for site preparation.

3. discusses the techniques of grubbing out roots, clearing shrubs and thick bushes and exterminating termites.

4. takes students to on-going building site to see and observe preparation and setting out in progress.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. listen attentively and participate actively in class and on site.

2. visit on-going building sites, observe work in progress and write report.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to list hand tools, mechanical plants and other methods for site preparation.

THEME – BUILDING

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Setting out materials

2. Films, charts and posters

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. name and state the uses of setting out materials.

2. carry out simple setting out exercises.

### FOCUS LESSONS

Setting out materials: building plans, pegs, lines, builder’s square, plumb, hammer, profile, etc.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. displays setting out materials, names them and briefly describes their uses.

2. demonstrates a simple setting out.

3. takes students to a nearby building site or watch a documentary.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. listen attentively and participate in class and on site.

2. visit a near-by construction site or watch a documentary.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to identify setting out materials.

THEME – YOU AND TECHNOLOGY

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

G.S.M., V-SAT, computer, conventional cable phone.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain basic electronic communication system.

2. explain the meaning and nature of ICT.

3. analyze graphically the working (transmission system) of G.S.M.

4. state the meaning of internet and explain its process.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Analogue and digital communication systems.

2. Meaning and nature of ICT process.

3. Schematic diagram of G.S.M transmission process.

4. Meaning of internet and its process.

5. Internet equipment and transmission process.

6. Merits and demerits of the internet.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. explains analogue and digital communication systems with their merits and demerits.

2. defines and explains the meaning and nature of ICT.

3. illustrates with schematic diagram the working of G.S.M.

4. defines internet and its process.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in class discussion.

3. practice with computer and G.S.M.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. identify analogue and digital communication systems.

2. state the merits and demerits of G.S.M.

3. state the merit and demerit of internet.

4. compare the uses of G.S.M. to internet.

THEME – SAFETY

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

First aid box and materials

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define first aid.

2. list first aid materials.

3. apply first aid measures.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. First aid box and materials

2. Application of simple first aid.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. exhibits and explains first aid materials and their uses.

2. demonstrates how to give simple first aid.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. inspect a first aid box and name the contents.

2. practice giving simple first aid.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define first aid.

2. list five first aid materials.

3. apply simply first aid measures.

THEME – DRAWING PRACTICE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Drawing instruments and materials

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. interpret the language of lines in drawing.

2. identify and draw lines of various types.

3. bisect given lines.

4. divide given lines into given number of equal parts and ratios.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Language of lines in drawing

2. Types, uses and drawing of lines,

• thick continuous lin
• thin continuous lin
• thin short dashes
• bisection of lines
• division of lines

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. lists, draws and states the uses of lines of various types.

2. demonstrates how to bisect a given line.

3. demonstrates how to divide a line into equal number of parts and given ratios.

4. places emphasis on quality of lines, correct use of instrument and geometrical methods/techniques.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. listen attentively.

2. practice drawing of quality lines.

3. use appropriate instruments to bisect and divide lines.

THEME – DRAWING PRACTICE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Drawing instruments and materials

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. construct regular plane figures of equal areas.

2. enlarge and reduce plane figures.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Areas of regular plane figures e.g.

• triangle and rectangle of equal areas.
• square and rectangle of equal areas, etc.

2. Enlargement and reduction of plane figures such as triangles, rectangles and square in given ratios by length of sides and radial line method.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. demonstrates the construction of triangles and rectangles of equal areas, square and rectangles of equal areas.

2. demonstrates general and specific methods of enlarging and reducing plane figures.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. construct plane figures of equal areas.

2. enlarge and reduce plane figures.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

construct plane figures of equal areas.

2. enlarge and reduce plane figures.

THEME – DRAWING PRACTICE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Drawing instruments and materials

2. Models of quadrilaterals and polygons

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define, identify and construct regular quadrilaterals.

2. define, identify and construct regular and irregular polygons.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Definition and construction of regular quadrilateral, e.g: rectangle, square, rhombus, parallelogram and trapezium, etc.

2. Definition and construction of regular and irregular polygons: pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, using general and specific methos etc.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. defines and names various types of quadrilateral.

2. demonstrates the construction of various types of quadrilateral.

3. names and describes various types of polygon.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. listen attentively.

2. watch teacher’s demonstrations.

3. construct rectangles, quadrilaterals and polygons.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to identify, describe and construct given quadrilaterals and polygons.

THEME – DRAWING PRACTICE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Drawing instruments and materials

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define, identify and construct various triangles.

2. construct, inscribed and circumscribed circles to given triangles.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Triangles and circles: right angled, equilateral, isosceles and scalene triangles.

2. Inscribed and circumscribed circles to given triangles.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. defines and demonstrates the construction of right angled triangle and equilateral triangle.

2. inscribes and circumscribes circles to triangles.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. construct triangles.

2. inscribe and circumscribe circle to triangles.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. identify and circumscribe circles to a given triangle.

2. construct inscribed and circumscribed circles to given triangles.

THEME – DRAWING PRACTICE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Drawing instruments and and materials.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define, identify, draw and list parts of a circle.

2. use appropriate instrument to divide a circle into equal parts.

3. use appropriate instruments to draw a tangent and normal to a given circle and two equal circles.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Circle, diameter, radius, chord, sector, quadrant and circumference, etc.

2. Use of set square, tee-square and compasses to divide a circle into 4, 8 and 12 equal parts.

3. Construction of tangent and normal to a circle; tangent at a point 0 to the circle; tangent to a point outside the circle and to one or two equal circles.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. names, defines, describes and draws the parts of a circle.

2. demonstrates the use of a pair of compass, set square and tee-square to divide a circle into 4, 8 and 12 equal parts.

3. demonstrates the constructions of tangent and normal to a circle.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. watch teacher’s demonstrations

2. practice the use of tee-square, set squares and compasses to divide circles into equal parts.

3. construct a tangent and normal to a given circle.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define, identify and describe types of circle.

2.describe and construct a tangent and a normal to a circle.

3. use appropriate instruments to divide a circle into a number of equal parts.

THEME – DRAWING PRACTICE

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Drawing instruments and materials

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to define, identify, draw, measure and construct various angles.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Angles: right, acute, obtuse, complementary, supplementary, reflex, etc.

2. Bisection of angles

3. Construction of angles: 90°, 60°, 45°, 30°, 222°, 15°, 120°, etc.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. defines and illustrates types of angle.

2. demonstrates how to measure angles.

3. demonstrates how to bisect and construct angles.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students practice how to measure angles, bisect any given angle and construct various angles.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define, identify, draw and measure angles.

2. bisect any given angle.

3. construct angles.