Chemistry Guides for SS 3 Chemistry and Industries

 

ETHICAL, LEGAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES, IRON, MENTAL AND THEIR COMPOUND AND PETROLEUM OR CRUDE OIL

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRIES 

TOPIC 1 – ETHICAL, LEGAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Chart – itemizing the names of chemical industries in Nigeria

2. Relevant legislation

3. A local chemical industry

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the adverse effects of chemical wastes on the environment.

2. list some industrial pollutants of the environment.

 

3. state ways of preventing chemical degradation.

4. identify the role of governments in preventing and fighting chemical degradation.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Chemical wastes

2. Industrial pollutant

3. Roles of governments in preventing chemical degradation

  • legislation
  • enforcement of standards and legislation

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teaches students about the adverse effects of chemical waste on the environment.

2. Sensitizes students about the hazards of working in chemical industries.

3. Takes students on a visit to chemical industries.

4. Guides the students to discuss:

 

  • ways of preventing chemical degradation
  • the role of environment in preventing chemical degradation.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Name some chemical industries in Nigeria.

2. Suggest possible chemical wastes in their environment.

3. Visit chemical industries.

4. Participate in class discussion.

5. Project – Environmental Impact Assessment of a Local Chemical Industry.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. name some chemical industries in Nigeria

2. list the adverse effects of chemical wastes on the environment

3. carry out the project to,

 

  • identify the impact of a local chemical industry on the environment.
  • suggest ways of reducing the chemical degradation of the environment caused by the local industry.

4. describe the ways government can prevent environmental degradation.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRIES 

TOPIC 2 – IRON 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Iron

2. Water

3. Paint or oil grease

4. Rusted nails, keys, spoons, etc.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the relative abundance of iron ore in nature.

2. state the physical and chemical properties of iron.

3. describe the process for extraction of iron from its ore.

4. state the causes of rusting in iron.

5. suggest ways of preventing rusting of iron.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Extraction of Iron – the process of extracting iron

2. Physical and chemical properties of iron

3. Uses of Iron

4. Rusting of iron and methods of prevention

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Perform experiment to show:

a. brown ring test

b. rusting of iron

c. corrosion of iron

2. takes students to visit the iron and steel industry at Ajaokuta, Nigeria if possible.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Watch teacher demonstrations.

2. Describe and report the experiments.

3. Visit iron and steel industry, Nigeria (if possible).

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state five physical and chemical properties of iron;

2. describe the process of extracting iron;

3. list the cause of rusting of iron;

4. discuss ways of preventing rusting.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRIES 

TOPIC 3 – MENTAL AND THEIR PROPERTIES 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Samples of metals and their compounds.

2. The periodic table of elements.

3. Charts of mineral ore distribution in Nigeria.

4. List of mining and metal-related industries in Nigeria.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

MENTAL

1. state the general characteristics of metals.

2. identify what parts of the periodic table contains metals.

3. state the relative abundance of metals in nature.

4. list five classes of compounds formed by metals (i.e sulphates, chloride etc).

5. state the general principles of extraction of metals.

 

ALKALI METAL AND SODIUM 

6. list the properties of alkali metals.

7. describe the extraction and give the uses of sodium as a typical alkali metal.

8. list the compounds of sodium.

 

9. list the properties of alkaline earth metals.

10. describe the extraction and give the uses of calcium as a typical alkaline earth metal.

 

ALUMINUM

11. describe the extraction of aluminum.

12. list five compounds of aluminum.

13. list five uses of aluminum.

 

TIN

14. describe the extraction of tin metal.

15. state five uses of tin.

 

TRANSITION METALS 

 

16. name members of the first transition series.

17. List the general and characteristics of properties of transition elements.

 

COPPER

18. Describe the extraction of copper.

19. List five uses of copper.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Metals:

  • chemical characteristics
  • relative.

2. Compounds of metals

3. Principles of extraction of metals,

  • electrolysis
  • reduction of oxides
  • reduction of chlorides
  • reduction of sulphates

 

4. The alkali metal (General properties)

 

5. Sodium,

  • extraction of sodium
  • properties of sodium
  • compounds of socium
  • uses of sodium

 

6. The alkali earth metals (general properties)

7. Calcium,

  • extraction of calcium
  • properties of calcium
  • compounds of calcium
  • uses of calcium

 

8. Aluminum,

  • extraction of aluminum
  • uses of aluminum

 

9. Tin,

  • extraction of Tin
  • uses of Tin

 

10. Transition metals – properties of transition metals (the first transition series only)

 

11. Copper

  • extraction of copper
  • uses of copper

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Explains the general characteristics of metals.

2. Leads the students to identify parts of the periodic table containing metals.

3. Shows on charts the relative abundance of metals in nature with emphasis on the occurrence of certain metals as mineral in Nigeria (i.e. Tin, Iron, etc).

 

4. Discusses using diagrams the principles of extraction of metals with tin-mining and iron and steel as examples (emphasis on Nigeria).

5. List and explain the general properties of alkali and alkali earth metals.

6. Discuss the extraction, properties and uses of sodium, calcium, aluminum and tin.

7. Explain the general properties of transition metals,

  • list the first transition series and explain their electronic configuration
  • discuss the oxidation states and complex formation for the first transition series.

8. Discuss the extraction and uses of copper and iron.

9. Explain the rusting of iron and methods of its prevention.

10. Discuss the general reaction of metals.

11. Shows samples of various metal ores to the students.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

Perform experiments to:

 

1. show action of powdered charcoal on metallic oxides

2. investigate the properties of sodium compounds

3. show – aluminum as a reducing agent

4. prepare:

  • aluminum hydroxide and potassium alum
  • anhydrous iron (III) chloride

5. demonstrate,

  • rusting of iron
  • corrosion of iron nails in agar mixtures
  • oxidation of calcium in water
  • oxidation of zinc by acid
  • behaviour of trio-oxonitrates on heating.

6. collect information on mineral ores in Nigeria i.e. Iron, Tin, Calcium, Uranium etc.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. list 5 characteristics of metals.

2. List the first 30 elements of the periodic table and classify them as metals, non-metals or metalloids.

3. list the properties of each class.

4. give 3 methods of extraction of metals.

5. discuss the extraction, properties and uses of sodium calcium, aluminium, tin, and copper.

6. suggest methods for the prevention of corrossion in metals.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRIES 

TOPIC 4 – CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures,

  • on exploration of oil
  • of any refinery in Nigeria

2. Fractional distillation apparatus

3. Petroleum products – kerosene, diesel oil, grease, etc.

 

4. Samples of plastics, synthetic rubber, insecticides, detergents, fibre(nylon, dacron, etc)

5.Cylinder of natural gas

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the origin and state the composition of crude oil (petroleum).

2. discuss the exploration of and drilling for crude oil in Nigeria.

3. explain the fractional distillation of petroleum and list the major fractions (products).

4. list the location of Nigerian refineries.

5. explain the terms cracking and reforming.

6. discuss the use of petrochemicals as starting materials of organic synthesis leading to organic compounds like plastics, synthetic rubber, drugs, insecticides, detergents, fibres, etc.

 

7. explain the use of octane numbers in determining the quality of petrol.

8. explain the occurrence, packaging and uses of natural gases.

9. state the economic importance of petroleum.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Origin and composition of petroleum (crude oil)

2. Nigerian and World crude oil reserves

3. Exploration and drilling of crude oil

4. Fractional distillation and major products

5. Location of Nigerian refineries

6. Cracking and reforming

7. Petrochemicals as starting materials of organic synthesis

8. Quality of petrol: meaning of octane number

9. Natural gas:

 

  • occurrence
  • packaging as liquefied natural gas (LNG)
  • uses
  • economic importance of petrol

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides the students in the discussion of origin and composition of crude oil.

2. Explains the fractional distillation of petroleum and gives the students the list of the major fractions.

3. Guides the students in identifying Nigerian refineries.

4. Explains the term cracking and reforming.

5. Explains the use of petrochemicals as starting materials for the synthesis of a large number of organic compounds like plastics plastic, synthetic rubber, insecticides, detergents, fibre etc.

 

6. Explains the use of octane number in determining the quality of petrol.

7. Explains the occurrence, packaging and uses of natural gases.

8. Discuss knocking and anti-knocking agents.

9. Discuss the economic importance of petroleum.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Participate in class discussion.

2. Carry out experiment on the fractional distillation of a mixture of petroleum products (kerosene, diesel oil, etc) in groups.

3. Collects samples of the products of the petrochemical industries.

4. Defines octane number and gives examples of anti-knocking agents.

5. List the uses of natural gas.

6. Visit a nearby petrochemical industry.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list the composition of crude oil.

2. state the importance of cracking and reforming.

3. discuss the impact of the petrochemical industry on Nigerian economy.

4. assesses the quality of petrol from given octane number.

5. state the use of natural gas.

 

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