BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING
PREVIOUS LESSON – Meaning of Acids and Bases | Properties of Acids and Bases | Types of Acids and Bases | Uses of Acids and Bases Primary 5 (Basic 5) Term 3 Week 2 Basic Science and Technology
TOPIC – LOCAL AND MODERN SOAPS
2. Meaning of Soap and Detergent
3. Local Materials Used of Making Soap
4. Active Ingredients in the Local Materials Used for Making Soap
5. Uses of Soap
6. Lesson Evaluation and Weekly Assessment
By the end of the lesson, most of the pupils should have attained the following objectives –
1. explain the meaning of soap and detergent.
2. state the local materials used in making soap.
3. identify the active ingredients in the local material used in making soap.
4. state the uses of soap.
5. make soap from local materials.
The pupils can different between bar, liquid and detergent.
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:
1. Wood ash
3. Glass or plastic container
4. Palm oil
6. Cans and containers
7. Spatula or wooden spoon
8. Dirty Handkerchief
METHOD OF TEACHING
Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.
Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.
1. Scheme of Work
2. 9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum
3. Course Book
4. All Relevant Material
5. Online Information
CONTENT OF THE LESSON
LESSON 1 – INTRODUCTION
Soap is a substance used for washing.
Soaps are in different forms,
Most of the bar soaps used for bathing and washing of dishes.
While the liquid soaps are commonly used for washing dishes.
Sometimes, bar soaps are also used for washing dishes incase liquid soap are not available.
EXAMPLES OF LIQUID SOAP
Liquid soaps are soaps in liquid soaps.
Morning fresh, good mama, sunlight and local liquid soap are good examples of liquid soaps in our localities.
EXAMPLES OF DETERGENT SOAP
Detergent soaps are soaps in form of powder.
Aerial, elephant, omo, so easy, sunlight, nittol, etc. are good examples of detergent soaps.
EXAMPLES OF BAR SOAP
Bar soaps are soap in solid form.
Joy, delta, tura, etc. are good examples of bar soap.
TYPES OF SOAP
The types of soap are as follows:
1. Local soap
2. Modern soap
The above soaps are available in liquid, detergent and bar soaps.
1. LOCAL SOAPS
Local soap are black soap used for bathing.
Local materials or ingredients are used for making local soaps.
2. MODERN SOAPS
Modern soap are joy soap, sunrise detergent, sunrise dish wash, omo osun, etc.
These soaps are made with modern materials or ingredients.
LESSON 2 – USES OF SOAP, LOCAL MATERIALS AND ACTIVE INGREDIENTS USED FOR MAKING LOCAL SOAPS
USES OF SOAP
Soaps are used for the following,
LOCAL MATERIALS FOR MAKING LOCAL SOAPS
Local materials and active ingredients used for making local soap are as follows:
2. Palm oil or animal fat
4. pot or pan
5. Spoon or stick for stirring
ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN SOAP MAKING
Acids and bases as ingredients used in making soap are sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.
1. Sodium hydroxide for making bar soap.
2. Potassium hydroxide for making liquid soap.
LESSON 3 – HOW TO MAKE LOCAL SOAP
Teacher’s Activities – Group the pupils and provide the following items – palm oil, frying pan or open pot, caustic soda, long spoon or stick for stirring, milk containers, stove and dirty handkerchiefs.
Teacher’s instructions –
- Heat the palm oil until it changed colour.
- Add some caustic soda to the heated oil.
- Stir the oil and caustic soda very well.
- Pour the mixture into the milk container for moldings.
- Allow to cool and harden.
- Wash dirty handkerchiefs or clothes with the soap.
Pupil’s activities and response – Received materials for soap making and for the teacher’s instructions.
Teacher’s activities and remark – Active teacher’s participation is required for precautions and pupil’s safetybecause heated oil and mixing processes. Give a great cheer for active participation in soap making.
REVISION AND WEEK LESSON ASSESSMENT
As stated in performance objectives or lesson evaluation.
Other Plan Lesson Note on Soaps – Soap Making and Materials Used for Making Soap Primary 5 (Basic 5) ASEI PDSI METHOD
To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:
1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;
2. Teacher organizes pupil’s in groups or pairs depending on the size of the class.
3. Teacher displays samples of local and modern soaps.
4. Teacher asks pupils to identify and differentiate between the two soaps.
Pupil’s Activities – Differentiate between the liquid and bar soaps.
5. Teacher listen to the pupils and uses their responses to introduce the lesson.
Pupil’s Activities – Pay attention to the lesson introduction to understand the concept of the lesson.
6. Teacher leads a discussion on the meaning, forms and types of soap.
Pupil’s Activities – Explain the meaning of soap and analyze different forms of soap in their communities.
7. Teacher asks pupils as a group or pair to state the uses of soaps with appropriate examples.
Pupil’s Activities – State the uses of soap.
8. Teacher displays materials and ingredients used for making local soaps.
9. Teacher asks pupils to identify each of the materials.
Pupil’s Activities – Identify each of the materials used for making soaps.
10. Teacher organizes the pupils in groups and guides them to make liquid and bar soap.
Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the soap making.
11. Summarizes the lesson on the board with appropriate lesson evaluation.
Pupil’s Activities – Take active part in the summary of the lesson and write as instructed.
- To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.
Teacher asks pupils to:
1. explain the meaning of soap.
2. state 3 forms of soap with appropriate examples.
3. differentiate between local and bar soaps with appropriate examples.
4. mention 5 uses of soap.
5. name 5 local materials used in making soap.
6. identify acids and bases as ingredients used in making soap.
7. discuss the process of making local soaps.
ATTEMPT ALL THE QUESTIONS
1. ________ are liquid or solid substances used for washing.
2. Soaps are in ________ form.
A. Solid and liquid
B. Liquid and solid
C. A and B
3. There are ________ types of soaps.
C. A and B
Mention 2 types of soaps.
6. ________ Sodium hydroxide for making bar soap.
A. Potassium hydroxide
B. Sodium hydroxide
C. Iye hydroxide
7. ________ for making liquid soap.
A. Sodium hydroxide
B. Iye hydroxide
C. Potassium hydroxide
8. State 5 materials used for making local soaps.
9. Give 2 examples of the following:
- Bar soaps, ________ and ________
- Liquid soaps, ________ and ________
- Detergent soaps, ________ and ________
10. Differentiate between local and modern soaps.