# Physics SS 3 Curriculum Guides – Duality of Matter, Energy Quantization, Models of Atom and Nucleus

THEME – ENERGY QUANTIZATION AND DUALITY OF MATTER

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Charts and pictures.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to identify phenomena which are only satisfactorily explained by assuming that matter behaves like waves and particles.

### FOCUS LESSONS

Wave – particle duality

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher lead discussion using simple illustrations, theories of the nature of light, particle theory and wave theory.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students discuss on the theories of the nature of light, particle theory and wave theory.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to explain the behaviour of matter as a wave and as a particle depending on the circumstances.

THEME – ENERGY QUANTIZATION AND DUALITY OF MATTER

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. X-ray films

2. Pictures and charts of x-ray machines.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the concept of energy quantization.

2. use the photon concept to explain the effect of electrons in the photoelectric effect.

3. describe x-ray production and state its characteristics, properties and uses.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Energy levels in atoms,

• ground state
• excited state

2. Photoelectric effect

3. Einstein photo-electric equation and its explanation

4. X-ray:

• production
• characteristics and properties
• uses

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. gives worked examples involving threshold frequency, work function and Plank’s constant.

2. leads students to an X-ray centre and observe the operation of the x-ray equipment.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. solve examples involving threshold frequency, work function and Plank’s constant.

2. discuss the operation of an x-ray tube.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain the concept of threshold frequency, work function and their relationship with maximum kinetic energy.

2. solve simple problems involving these concepts.

THEME – ENERGY QUANTIZATION AND DUALITY OF MATTER

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts of atomic models

2. Models of the atom.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state and discuss what chemical evidence there is for the existence of atom.

2. state and discuss what experimental evidence for believing that matter is electrical in nature.

3. describe Bohr Rutherford models of the atom.

4. explain nucleon number and their relationship.

### FOCUS LESSONS

1. Concept of the atom

2. The various models of the atom

• Thompson
• Rutherford
• Bohr
• Electron-cloud models

3. Limitations of physical models.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. leads discussion on the historical events that led to the modern concept of the atom.

2. leads discussion on the scattering experiment and its analogue.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. explain the modern concept of the atom.

2. solve problems involving nucleon number, proton and number of atoms.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. use Bohr’s model of the atom to explain structure of the atom

2. discuss on the scattering experiment and its analogue.

THEME – ENERGY QUANTIZATION AND DUALITY OF MATTER

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts and films

2. Invite an expert to give a talk on nuclear energy and its application.

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

2. solve simple problems involving half-life of radioactive substances.

3. state some uses of radioactive substances.

4. use the concept of nuclear fission and fusion for the development of nuclear energy programme for Nigeria.

### FOCUS LESSONS

• isotopes
• half-life and decay constant

2. Nuclear reaction

• fission
• fusion
• nuclear energy
• nuclear power and atomic bomb

3. Nigeria’s nuclear energy programme.

### LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. leads discussion on random event and probability of decaying atoms.

2. gives worked examples on radioactive decay.

3. leads discussion on nuclear fission and fusion.

4. leads discussion on the applications of radioactivity in medicine, agriculture, science, industry, etc.

5. leads discussion on the development of nuclear programme in Nigeria.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. use half-life analogue and plot a decay curve.

2. solve simple problems on radioactive decay.

3. discuss the nuclear fission and fusion.

4. discuss the application of radioactivity in medicine, agriculture etc.

5. discuss the development of nuclear energy programme for Nigeria.

### LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. distinguish between natural and artificial radioactivity.

2. Solve problems involving half life and decay constant of radioactive substances.

3. Explain atomic energy, nuclear energy, fission, fusion and their principles.