Types (Meaning) of Soil | Chemical and Biological Composition of Soil | Soil pH | Physical Properties of Soil SSS 1 – Agricultural Science

 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE ECOLOGY 

SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL (SSS 1)

THEME: AGRICULTURE ECOLOGY 

PREVIOUS LESSON – Agricultural Science Plan Lesson Notes for Senior Secondary Schools – SSS 1

 

TOPIC – SOIL

 

LEARNING AREA

1. Types (Meaning) of Soil

2. Chemical Elements in the Soil

3. Physical Properties of Soil

4. Soil pH

 

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES 

By the end of the lesson, most of the students should have attained the following objectives –

1. Recognise the different types of soil.

2. Name the chemical elements in the soil that constitute plant nutrients.

3. Name soil microbes and other soil inhabiting organisms.

4. Determine the pH of different soil types.

 

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:

1. Diagram of soil profile.

2. Dug or existing soil profile.

 

METHOD OF TEACHING

Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons. 

 

REFERENCE MATERIALS

1. Scheme of Work

2. National Curriculum SSS Classes

3. Course Book

4. All Relevant Material

5. Online Information

 

CONTENT OF THE LESSON

MEANING OF SOIL

Soil is the top layer of the earth’s surface which made up of living and non living things.

 

COMPOSITION OF SOIL

Soil is made up of living and non things such as –

1. Water

2. Leaf litters

 

 

3. Rocks, humus

4. Dead animals

5. Living animals

6. Air

7. Soil particles – sand, loam and clay.

 

TYPES OF SOIL

Soil can be classified into three primary types based on its texture – sandy soil, clay soil and loamy soil.

 

SANDY SOIL

Sandy soil is a loose soil which made of small pieces of rocks and minerals.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDY SOIL

Sandy soil is a loose soil which made of small pieces of rocks and minerals.

1. It has large, loosely packed particles.

2. It does not hold water.

3. It is rough when rubbed between fingers.

4. Crops do not grow well on sandy soil.

5. Sandy soils are light brown.

 

CLAY SOIL

Clay soil is gray or red soil that small and closely packed particles.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLAY SOIL

1. It has small and closely packed particles.

2. It is smooth when dry and sticky when wet.

 

 

3. It can hold a lot of nutrients.

4. It does not allow air and water through it.

5. It can hold water.

6. Most crops do not grow well on it.

 

LOAMY SOIL

Loamy soil is made of equal amount of sandy and clay soil.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF LOAMY SOIL

1. It is very fertile.

2. It contains different minerals and nutrients.

3. It has good drainage capability.

4. It is consistency.

 

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL

1. Soil macro and micro nutrients

2. Soil water

3. Macro-organisms

4. Soil microbes

5. Soil air

 

SOIL pH

Soil pH is a measurement of the alkalinity or acidity of soil. Soil pH is measured on a scale of 1-14, with 7 as the neutral mark. The ideal range for most plants is between 6–7.

 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

Physical properties of soil include:

1. Colour

2. Soil texture

 

 

3. Soil structure

4. Porosity

5. Density

6. Consistence

7. Temperature

8. Air

 

PRESENTATION

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the students some questions; then, the teacher –

2. Displays soil samples e.g. loamy, sandy, clayey.
Conduct pH tests.

Student’s Activities – Examine the soil samples and determine their physical characteristics. Carry out laboratory experiments as directed.

3. Summarizes the lesson on the board.

Student’s Activities – Copy as the teacher writes.

 

CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.

 

LESSON EVALUATION 

Ask students to:

1. Mention types of soil.

2) State major composition of soil. V – conduct laboratory experiment to determine any one of each.

 

 

3) Discuss biological and chemical properties of soil.

4) How will you determine physical properties of soil e.g. soil texture, soil structure, soil air, etc.

5) Determine pH of any two soil types.