THEME: CONCEPT AND MEDIUM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
TOPIC – WEEDS
1. Meaning of Pests
2. Common Pests
3. Classification and Control of Pests
4. Damage done by Pests
5. Effects of Pests on Crops Yield.
By the end of the lesson, the students should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –
1. explain crop pests with examples.
2. classify insect pests according to mouth parts.
3. describe the nature of damage done by crop plant pests.
4. state effects of pests on the crop yield.
Insect and animals
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:
1. Charts and pictures of the pests of the locality.
2. Specimens of insect pest, formalin, kerosene, (for preservation), insect box, etc.
METHOD OF TEACHING – Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.
Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.
1. Scheme of Work
2. 9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum
3. Course Book
4. All Relevant Material
5. Online Information
CONTENT OF THE LESSON
MEANING OF CROP PESTS
Pests are insects and small animals that are harmful or damage farm crops.
IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON PESTS
8. Quela birds
CONTROL METHODS ON VEGETATION AND SOIL
This process involves using animals to feed on the pests on the farm.
One disadvantage of this method is that the animals may also eat and destroy the wanted plants in the process.
Cultural control is the removal (or killing) of pests (insects) by hands, cutlass or trap.
This is also called manual control.
A chemical is a man-made liquid or powder used for controlling or killing pests and diseases spread by pests.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSECT PESTS BASED ON MOUTH PARTS
A.. Piercing and Sucking Insects
1. Cotton stainers
2. Green shield bugs
3. White flies
4. Mealy bugs
6. Fruit-piercing moths
7. Coreid bugs
8. Scale insects
10. Cocoa thrips
B. Biting and Chewing Insects
4. Leaf worms
10. Stick insects
12. Rhinoceros beetles
C. Boring Insects
1. Yam beetles
2. Beam beetles
3. Rice weevils
4. Maize weevils
5. Sorghum weevils
6. Stem borers
7. Larvae of Lepidoptera e.g. butterfly, moth
8. Pod borers
DESCRIPTION OF THE DAMAGE DONE BY THE CROP PESTS
There are two (2) kinds of damage done by the crop pests – direct and indirect damage.
Direct damage is feeding on crops leaves, burrows in the stems, fruits and leaves.
Indirect damage is the pests (insect pests) infect and transmit diseases like bacterial, viral, or fungal infection into a crop.
EFFECTS OF CROP PESTS ON YIELD
1. Pests infected seeds, crops, and vegetables.
2. Pests reduce market value of farm crops.
3. Pests reduce the quality of crops.
4. Pests eat up leaves, burrows in stems, fruit, or roots of crops
5. Pests reduce crop productivity.
To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:
1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the students some questions;
2. Displays pictures and charts of crop pests of the locality.
Student’s Activities – Study pictures and charts to familiarize self with the local crop plant pest.
3. Displays specimen of insect pests.
Student’s Activities – Bring insect pests and make insect box.
4. Gives a board summary.
Student’s Activities – Copy the board summary.
To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.
1. define pests with examples.
2. mention two classes of crop pests.
3. list two piercing and sucking insect and three biting and chewing insects.
4. describe the nature of damage done by crop plant pests.
5. state three effects of pest on crops yield.