SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL (SSS 1)
THEME: CROP PRODUCTION
PREVIOUS LESSON –
TOPIC – PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
2. Meaning and Characteristics of Pastures and Forage Crops
3. Common Pastures and Their Botanical Names
4. Factors affecting Distribution and Production of Forage Crops
5. Establishment and Common Practices of Pasture
By the end of the lesson, most of the students should have attained the following objectives –
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:
1. Visit to livestock farm.
2. Samples of forage crops – grasses and legumes.
METHOD OF TEACHING
Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.
Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.
1. Scheme of Work
2. National Curriculum for SSS Classes
3. Course Book
4. All Relevant Material
5. Online Information
CONTENT OF THE LESSON
MEANING OF PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
PASTURE can be defined as an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes used for feeding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.
FORAGE CROPS can be defined as grasses and legumes deliberately planted and managed for the purpose of feeding livestock.
USES OF FORAGE CROPS
1. It is used for feeding livestock.
2. It is used for preventing erosion.
3. It is used controlling weeds
4. It improves soil organic matter.
5. It increases seasonal distribution and production.
TYPES OF PASTURE
There are two types of forage,
1. Natural Pasture
2. Artificial Pasture
Natural pasture can be defined as an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes not planted by man.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL PASTURE
1. It is natural grazing land.
2. It is known as primary pasture.
3. Its full of abundant grasses and legumes.
4. It has good ability to regenerate.
5. It cannot be easily eradicate.
6. The soil is very rich in organic matter.
Artificial pasture can be defined as an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are deliberately planted and managed by man.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTIFICIAL PASTURE
1. It contains selected grass and legumes.
2. It is deliberately planted and managed by man.
3. It is man – made vegetation.
4. It also has the ability to regenerate.
5. It contains no weed.
6. It is a secondary pasture.
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES USED FOR GRAZING LIVESTOCK WITH THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME OF THEM
Common Name Botanical Name
1. Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum
2. Guinea grass Panicum maximum
3. Carpet grass Axonopus compressus
4. Giant Star grass Cynodon plectostachyum
5. Spear grass Imperrata cylindrical
6. Bahama grass Cynodon dactylon
Common Name Botanical Name
1. Calopo Calopoganium mucunoides
2. Sun hemp Crotalaria juncea
3. Stylo Stylosanthes gracilis
4. Centro Centrosema Pubescens
5. Kudzu or puero Pueraria phaseoloides
5. Calopo Calopoganium mucunoides
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF PASTURE
1. Climatic factor
2. Conditions of the soil
3. Pests and diseases
4. Availability of seeds
5. Land ownership
7. Good management
ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURE
1. Adaptation of species
4. Life cycle of the species
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF PASTURE
2. Weed control
3. Pests and diseases control
5. Stocking or preservation
6. Use of manure or fertilization
To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:
1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the students some questions; then, the teacher –
2. Discuss the meaning of pasture and forage.
Student’s Activities – Participate in the class discussion.
3. Leads students to state the characteristics of pasture and forage.
Student’s Activities – State the characteristics of pasture and forage.
4. States the factors affecting the distribution and production of pastures.
Student’s Activities – Discuss the factors affecting the distribution and production of pastures as stated by the teacher.
5. Discuss the establishment and common of pasture.
Student’s Activities – Actively participation in the discussion.
6. Teacher supervises the students to prepare forage crop album.
Student’s Activities – Preparation of forage crop album as group work.
7. Summarizes the lesson on the board.
Student’s Activities – Copy as the teacher writes.
To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.
Ask students to:
1. Explain the meaning of forage crops.
2. State 5 uses of forage crops
3. List 5 examples of pasture grasses and legumes.