# Ratio and Proportion Primary 6 (Basic 6) Second Term Week 2 and Third Term Week 1 (Revision) Mathematics

**MATHEMATICS**

SECOND TERM – WEEK 1

THIRD TERM – WEEK 2

PRIMARY 6

THEME: NUMBER AND NUMERATION

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –

**TOPIC: RATIO AND PROPORTION **

### LEARNING AREA

1. Introduction

2. Applications of Ratio

3. Family Size and Resources

4. Ratio of Population

5. Ratio of Hiv/aids

6. Direct and Indirect Ratio

7. Word Problems

8. Lesson Evaluation and Weekly Assessment (Test)

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES**

By the end of the lesson, more of the pupils should have attained the following objectives –

1. identify the meaning of ratio and simply ratio in its lowest form;

2. apply ratio to real – life situation;

3. find the ratio of family size to their resources;

4. express two populations in ratio;

5. find the ratio of HIV/AIDS prevalence between sexes and states.

6. identify the meaning of direct proportion and solve problems involving direct proportion;

7. identify indirect proportion.

**ENTRY BEHAVIOR**

The pupils can compare two or more qualities.

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:

1. Source for related charts

2. Flash charts

3. Inverse proportion charts

4. Inverse population charts.

**METHOD OF TEACHING **

Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.

**REFERENCE MATERIALS**

Scheme of Work

9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum

New Method Mathematics Book 6

Prime Mathematics Book 6

All Relevant Material

Online Information

Related post – LCM, HCF, order of fractions, place value of decimal number, scheme of work – first term – second term – third term

**CONTENT OF THE LESSON**

**LESSON 1 – INTRODUCTION**** **

ACTIVITY 1 – RATIONRatio is used to compare two or more values or qualities that are alike.

There are 12 blue boxes and 8 white boxes.

Ratios can be represented in the following ways:

- Use the
” : “to separate the values: 12 : 8.

- Use the word
” to “: 12 to 8.

- Write it like a
fraction: 12/8.

For example,

The ratio of blue boxes to white boxes is 12 to 8 or 12 : 8.

The ratio of white boxes to blue boxes is 8 to 12 or 8 : 12.

12 : 8 can be further simplify to 12/4 : 8/4 = 3 : 2.

That’s, 12 : 8 is equivalent (equal) to 3: 2.

ACTIVITY 2 – WORKING EXAMPLES

STRAWBERRIES

ORANGES

1. What is the total number of fruits?

2. What is the total number of strawberries?

3. What is the total number of oranges?

4. What is the ratio of oranges to strawberries?

5. What is the ratio of strawberries to oranges?

6. What is the ratio of oranges to total fruit?

7. What is the ratio of strawberries to total fruit?

ACTIVITY 3 – FURTHER EXERCISE – QUANTITATIVE

SAMPLEA.

12: 16 = 3 : 4B. 2 : 5 = 8 :

20

QUESTIONS

- ____ : 12 = 9 : 4

- 3 : 6 = 9 : ____

- ____ : 20 = 6 : 40

- 10 : 4 = ____ : 8

- 1 : ____ = 6 : 24

ANSWER KEY

28: 12 = 9 : 4

- 3 : 6 = 9 :
18

3: 20 = 6 : 40

- 10 : 4 =
20: 8

- 1 :
4= 6 : 24

**LESSON 2 – APPLICATION OF RATIO TO REAL LIFE SITUATION **

ACTIVITY 1 – PROBLEMS SOLVING INVOLVING RATIO

WORKING EXAMPLE 1 –The ratio of boys to girls in a class is 6 : 5. There are 24 boys. How many girls are in the class?

SOLUTIONGiven,

Number of boys in the class is 24

Number of girls in the class?

Ratio of boys to girls is 6 : 5

Therefore, equivalent ratio is

6 : 5 = 24 : ____

6 : 5 = 6 x 4 : ____

6 x 4 : 5 x 4 = 24 : 20

The number of girls in the class is 20.

WORKING EXAMPLE 2 –Books are sold at 3 for ₦25. Praise bought 9 books. How much did she pay?

SOLUTIONGiven

Cost of 3 books at ₦25.

Cost of 9 books?

Ratio of 3 books to 9 books is ₦25 : ₦?

That’s, 3 : 9 = ₦25 : ₦? (equivalent ratio)

3 x 1 : 3 x 3 = ₦25 x 1 : ₦25 x 3

3 : 1 : 9 = ₦25 : ₦75

Therefore, cost of 9 books is ₦75.

ACTIVITY 2 – WORKING EXERCISE1. The ratio of teachers to pupils in a school is 1 : 5. How many teachers are in the school if the number of pupils is 100?

2. In a school setting, the ratio of girls to boys was 5 : 4. There were 40 girls?

[ a ] How many are boys?

[ b ] How many pupils were there all together?

[ c ] What is the ratio of boys to girls?

[ d ] What is the ratio of boys to total number of pupils in the school?

**LESSON 3 – RATIO OF FAMILY SIZE AND RESOURCES **

ACTIVITY 1 – FAMILY SIZE AND RESOURCESFamily with large size spend more to enjoy better facilities in terms of feeding, clothing and shelter as families with small size spend less to enjoy the same facilities.

WORKING EXAMPLE –John’s family size is 8 and he earns ₦48,000 monthly. Find the ratio of his family size to his monthly salary.

SOLUTION8 : ₦48,000 = 1 : ₦6,000,

Each member of the family get care worth of ₦6,000.

- If his family size is 4, each member will get care worth of ₦12,000.

- If his family size is 12, each member will get care worth of ₦4,000.

- The more the family size gets bigger, the less each member of the family get.

ACTIVITY 2 – POPULATION AND ALLOCATION

WORKING EXAMPLE –In Lagos State, the budgetary allocation for education is ₦975,000,000 of the total population of 30,000. Find the amount allocated to education.

SOLUTIONRatio of population to education budget is 30,000 : ₦975,000,000,

= 30,000 : ₦975,000,000

= 30 : ₦975,000

= 3 : ₦97,500

= 1 : ₦32,500

Each citizen enjoys education resources worth of ₦32,500.

ACTIVITY 3 – RATIO OF PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS BETWEEN SEXES AND STATES OR COUNTRY

WORKING EXAMPLE –In a state of 25,000 people, 50 of them are HIV positive. Find the ratio of infected people to the population.

SOLUTIONTotal population of people is 25,000

HIV infected people is 50

The ratio of infected people to the total population is 50 : 25,000,

That’s

5 : 2,500

= 1 : 500

Therefore, in every 500 people there is 1 HIV infected.

See the recommended books for further exercises.

**LESSON 4 – PROPORTION **

ACTIVITY 1 – INTRODUCTIONA proportion is an equation in which two ratios are set equal to each other.

There are 2 types of proportion,

1. Direct proportion

2. Indirect and Inverse proportion

ACTIVITY 2 – DIRECT PROPORTIONDirectly proportion, an increase in one quantity causes an increase another at the same rate.

For example,

If the cost of one exercise book is ₦40.

Two books is ₦80,

Three books is ₦120, and so on.

As the qualities increase, the cost increases as well.

WORKING EXAMPLE 1 –The cost of 3 books is ₦80. Find the cost of 24 books.

SOLUTION

Cost of 3 books is ₦80

Cost of 6 books is ₦160

Cost of 9 books is ₦240

Cost of 12 books is ₦320

Cost of 15 books is ₦400

Cost of 18 books is ₦480

Cost of 21 books is ₦560

Cost of 24 books is ₦640.Therefore, cost of 24 books is 24/3 x ₦80 =

₦640.

WORKING EXAMPLE 2 –A trader buys 16 pairs of shorts at ₦4,000. How much will he pay for 35 pairs of shorts?

SOLUTIONCost of 16 pairs of shorts is ₦4,000

Cost of 1 pair of short is ₦4,000/16 = ₦240.

Cost of 35 pairs of shorts is 35 x ₦240 = ₦8,750.

ACTIVITY 3 – WORKING EXERCISE

1. A girl saves ₦600 every five days, how much can she save in thirty days.

2. A lorry travels 60 km in 30 minutes. How long will it take to travel 180 km?

**LESSON 5 – INDIRECT OR INVERSE PROPORTION **

ACTIVITY 1 – INTRODUCTIONInversely Proportion, an increase in one quantity causes a decrease in another and vice versa.

For example,

20 men work for 6 days, 30 men work for 4 days, 40 men for 3 days and so on. As the number of men increasing, number of days decreasing.

WORKING EXAMPLE 1 –35 workers can build a house in 16 days. How many days will it take 28 workers working at the same rate to build the same house?

SOLUTION35 workers can build in 16 day,

1 worker can build in 35 x 16.

28 workers build in d – days,

1 worker can build in 28 x d.

Therefore, 35 x 16 = 28 x d

d = (35 x 16)/28 = 20

Now, 28 workers can be build in 20 days

WORKING EXAMPLE –If 4 girls can weed a field in 10 days, how long will 5 girls take to weed it.4 girls can weed a field in 10 days, 1 girl weed a field in 4 x 10 days.

5 girls cuts weed a field in d – days, 1 weed a field in (5 x d) days.

Therefore, 4 x 10 = 5 x d

d = (4 x 10)/5 = 8 days.

5 girls will take weed a farm in 8 days.

ACTIVITY 2 – WORKING EXERCISE1. A man takes 5 minutes to drive 800 metres what distance can he drive in 16 minutes?

2. 40 pupils can eat a bag of rice in 8 days. How long will it last 16 children?

**PRESENTATION**

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;

2. Teacher organizes pupils in groups or pairs depending on the size of the class.

3. Teacher gets certain qualities of biro and pencil.

4. Teacher guides pupils to express the biro and pencil as a ratio of one another.

5. Teacher uses the pupils activities in step 4 introduce the lesson and leads a discussion on ratio with appropriate examples and illustrations.

Pipils activities – Pay attention to the lesson introduction to understand the concept of the lesson.

6. Teacher leads pupils to apply ration

7. Teacher guides the pupils to apply ratio to family and resource, population and allocation.

Pupil’s Activities – Analyze the application of ration there communities.

9. Teacher leads a discussion on the meaning and types of proportion with appropriate working examples and exercises.

Pupil’s Activities – Understand the concept of direct and inverses proportion.

10. Teacher summarizes each lesson on the board with appropriate lesson evaluation.

Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the summary of lessons by responding to the questions correctly and write as instructed.

**CONCLUSION**

- To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson – ratio, percentage and population issues.

- Next Lesson –
**Binary Number System – Conversion, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Primary 6 (Basic 6) – Mathematics**

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Teacher asks pupils to,

1. solve given problems on ratios;

2. solve some quantitative reasoning problems on ratios;

3. solve given problems on direct proportions;

4. solve problem on quantitative aptitude involving direct proportion;

5. solve given problems in inverse proportions;

6. solve given problems in quantitative reasoning in inverse proportions.