# States of Matter – Solid, Liquid and Gas | Properties of Solid, Liquid and Matter | Changes of State Primary 4 (Basic 4) Term 2 Week 9 Basic Science and Technology

### BASIC SCIENCE

BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SECOND TERM

PRIMARY 5

WEEK 9

THEME – LIVING AN NON LIVING THINGS

PREVIOUS – Meaning of Matter | Atoms as Fundamental Building Block of Matter | State of Matter Primary 5 (Basic 5) Term 2 Week 8 Basic Science and Technology

### LEARNING AREA

1. Introduction

2. States of Matter

3. Properties of Solid, Liquid and Gas

4. Changes of State

5. Lesson Evaluation and Weekly Assessment (Test)

### PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, most of the students should have attained the following objectives –

1. state the states of matter.

2. mention the properties of solid, liquid and gas.

3. analyze how substance changes state.

4. explain the melting, freezing, evaporation and condensation.

### ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

The pupils can different between liquid and solid object.

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:

1. Live specimen

2. Charts

3. Plastic containers

4. Polythene bags

### METHOD OF TEACHING

Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.

### REFERENCE MATERIALS

1. Scheme of Work

2. 9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum

3. Course Book

4. All Relevant Material

5. Online Information

### LESSON 1 – INTRODUCTION

Matter exists in several different forms, called states.

There are three (3) states of matter,

1. Solid

2. Liquid

3. Gas

1. PROPERTIES OF SOLID MATTER

Solid matter is any object that has its own form and shape.

The properties of solid matter are as follows:

• It has a fixed shape and volume.
• It cannot be compressed.
• It has high density.
• It is heavy. It cannot completely fill a container.
• It cannot flow.

Examples of solid objects are floors, pencils, plants, trees, cars, skin, books, ice, chairs, computers, etc.

### LESSON 2 – PROPERTIES OF LIQUID AND GAS MATTER

2. PROPERTIES OF LIQUID MATTER

Liquid matter takes the shape of its container.

It takes the shape of any object – cup, bowl, bottle, etc. that holds it.

Examples of liquid are water, juice, oil, pap, tea, blood, kerosene, groundnut oil, etc.

The properties of liquid matter are as follows:

• It has a fixed volume but no fixed shape.
• It takes the shape of the container in which they are placed.
• It cannot be compressed like solid matters.
• It has moderate to high density usually less than solid matters.
• It does not fill a container completely.
• It glows easily.

3. PROPERTIES OF GAS MATTER

Gas is any substance like the air we breathe, steam from air, steam, smoke from the firewood, exhaust from cars, etc.

The properties of gas matter are as follows:

• It neither has a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
• It can be completely compressed.
• It has a low density.
• It can fill a container completely.
• It flows easily like liquid.

### LESSON 3 – CHANGES OF STATE

A change of state is a physical change in a matter.

They are reversible changes and do not involve any changes in the chemical makeup of the matter.

The common changes of the state include,

1. Melting

2. Freezing

3. Condensation

4. Evaporation

5. Sublimation

1. MELTING

Melting is the process of changing substance from the solid state to liquid state.

For example, solid ice to liquid water.

2. FREEZING

Freezing is the process of changing from the liquid state to the solid state.

For example, liquid water to solid ice.

3. CONDENSATION

Condensation is the process of changing substance from the gaseous state to the liquid state.

For example, steam to liquid water.

4. EVAPORATION

Evaporation is the process of changing substance from the liquid state to the gaseous state.

For example, liquid water to steam.

5. SUBLIMATION

Sublimation is the transition from the solid state into a gaseous state without becoming liquid.

### PRESENTATION

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the students some questions; the teacher –

2. Teacher organizes pupil’s in groups or pairs depending on the size of the class.

3. Teacher displays sample of solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas (inhaler).

4. Teacher leads and guides pupils in groups or pairs to identify the properties of the states of matter.

Pupil’s Activities – Identify and state the physical properties of the solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas (inhaler).

5. Teacher uses the samples and the pupil’s responses to introduce the lesson.

Pupil’s Activities – Pay attention to the lesson introduction to understand the concept of the lesson.

6. Teacher leads a discussion on the properties of each of the state of matter.

Pupil’s Activities – State other properties of solid, liquid, and gas.

7. Teacher displays sample of liquid water and solid ice.

8. Teacher asks pupils to identify and state relationships between liquid and solid ice.

Pupil’s Activities – Examine and state the process of changing water to ice and ice to water.

9. Teacher listens to the pupils and uses their responses to introduce and discuss changes of the state with appropriate examples and illustrations.

Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the class discussion to analyze the changes of state.

10. Teacher works pupils through the process from solid ice, liquid water to gaseous substance.

Pupil’s Activities – Participate actively in the process of changing from solid through liquid to gas state.

11. Summarizes the lesson on the board with appropriate lesson evaluation.

Pupil’s Activities – Take active part in the summary of the lesson and write as instructed.

### CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.

Next Lesson –

### LESSON EVALUATION

1. state 3 states of matter.

2. mention 3 properties of the following:

• solid state
• liquid state
• gaseous state

3. analyze how substance changes:

• from solid state to liquids.
• from liquid state to solid state.
• from from liquid state to gaseous state.

4. explain the following:

• melting
• freezing
• evaporation
• Condensation