# Multiples and Factors of Numbers not Exceeding 48 (Primary 3)

MATHEMATICS

WEEK 7

SECOND TERM

PRIMARY 3

THEME – BASIC OPERATIONS

PREVIOUS LESSON – Second Term Scheme of Work and Plan Lesson Notes for MATHEMATICS Week 1 to Week 12 Primary Schools

TOPIC – FACTORS AND MULTIPLES OF NUMBERS NOT EXCEEDING 48

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. express whole numbers not exceeding 48 as products of factors.

2. find a missing factor in a given number.

3. distinguish between factors and multiples.

4. carry out correct division in everyday activities.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of Counters, Charts of factors of whole numbers, Rectangular pattern of numbers, Charts containing worked examples, etc.

METHOD OF TEACHING – Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

1. Scheme of Work

2. 9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum

3. Course Book

4. All Relevant Material

5. Online Information

CONTENT OF THE LESSON

LESSON ON – INTRODUCTION

MULTIPLES OF NUMBERS NOT EXCEEDING 48

Pupil’s Activities 1 – Multiples of Whole Numbers Not Exceeding 48

Sample

Multiples of 1 =

1 x 1, 1 x 2, 1 x 3, 1 x 4, 1 x 5, 1 x 6, 1 x 7, 1 x 8, 1 x 9, 1 x 10

Multiples of 2 = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, ….

Multiples of 3 = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45, 48.

Multiples of 4 = 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48.

Multiples of 5 = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45.

Quick Exercise (Oral Exercise) – 10 Minutes

Complete the following,

1. 6 = 6, (_12_), (_18_), 24, (_30_), (_36_), 42, 48.

2. 7 = (_14_), (_21_), 21, 28, (_35_), (_42_).

Teacher’s/Pupil’s Activities 2 – Successive Addition

Teacher’s comments – Multiples of numbers can be obtained by successive addition. For example, Multiples of 6 not exceeding 48.

6 = 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48.

1 x 6 = 6

2 x 6 = 6 + 6 = 12

3 x 6 = 12 + 6 = 18

4 x 6 = 18 + 6 = 24

5 x 6 = 24 + 6 = 30

6 x 6 = 30 + 6 = 36

7 x 6 = 36 + 6 = 42

8 x 6 = 42 + 6 = 48, stop.

Multiples of 7

= 7,  7 + 7,  14 + 7,  21 + 7,  28 + 7,  35 + 7, 42 + 7

= 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49. Stop at 42 because 49 has exceed 48.

Note – Assist pupils to make use of their fingers if not more 10 and other counting materials if above 10.

Pupil’s Activities 3 – Class Exercise/Take Home

Find the multiples of the following numbers not exceeding 48,

1. 2 = 2, 4,

2. 4 = 4, 8,

3. 6 = 6,

4. 8 = 8,

5. 10 =

LESSON TWO – FACTORS OF NUMBERS NOT EXCEEDING 48

Teacher’s/Pupil’s Activities 1 – Factors as the Product of Two Numbers

Working Examples,

1. 2 x 5 = 10

10 is the product of 2 and 5.

While 2 and 5 are the factors of 10, because

10 ÷ 2 = 5

10 ÷ 5 = 2

2. 3 x 4 = 12

12 is the product 3 and 4. While 3 and 4 are known as the factors of 12.

Teacher’s remark – When two or more numbers are multiplied together the number obtained is called the product of those numbers. The factors of a given number are the numbers that can divide the given number without remainder.

Pupil’s Activities 2 – Class Exercise/Take Home

Find the factors of the following numbers,

1. 12 = 2 x (__)

2. 10 = (__) x 5

3. 20 = (__) x 4

4. 36 = 9 x (__)

5. 8 = (__) x 2

LESSON THREE – FACTORS OF NUMBERS NOT EXCEEDING 48

Pupil’s Activities 1 – Factors as the Products Two or More Numbers

Teacher’s comments – A number can have more than two factors.

1 is a factor of itself and of all numbers.

2 = 1 x 2, 2 x 1

1 and 2 are factors 2.

3 = 1 x 3, 3 x 1

1 and 3 are factors of 3.

4 = 1 x 4, 4 x 1, 2 x 2

1, 2 and 4 are factors of 4.

6 = 1 x 6, 6 x 1, 2 x 3, 3 x 2

1, 2, 3 and 6 are factors of 6.

Guides pupils to express the numbers as products of two numbers.

Teacher’s/Pupil’s Activities 2 – Working Examples

Find the factors of 12 and 18.

12 = 1 x 12

12 = 2 x 6

12 = 3 x 4

12 = 4 x 3

12 = 6 x 2

12 = 12 x 1

Factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12.

18 = 1 x 18

18 = 2 x 9

18 = 3 x 6

18 = 6 x 3

18 = 9 x 2

18 = 18 x 1

Factors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 18.

Pupil’s Activities 3 – Class Exercise/Take Home

Find the factors of the following,

1. Factors of 20 =

20 = (__) x 20

20 = 2 x (__)

20 = (__) x 5

20 = 5 x (__)

20 = 10 x (__)

20 = (__) x 1

2. Factors of 36

36 = (__) x 36

36 = 2 x (__)

36 = (__) x 12

36 = 4 x (__)

36 = 6 x (__)

36 = (__) x 4

36 = (__) x 3

36 = 18 x (__)

36 = 1 x (__)

LESSON FOUR – QUANTITATIVE REASONING

As stated in the quantitative books or textbooks.

PRESENTATION

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;

2. Guides pupils to write out multiples of a given number e.g. multiple of 3 = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18.

3. Guides pupils in expressing whole numbers not exceeding 48 as product of their factors.

4. Leads pupils distinguish between factors and multiples of given numbers.

5. Emphasizes the need to be accurate in carrying out divisions in everyday activities.

6. Leads pupils to give examples of everyday activities where correct division is needed.

Pupil’s Activities – Follow the teacher’s guidelines and lead to find multiples and factors of numbers.

CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.

LESSON EVALUATION

Pupils to:

1. express given whole numbers not exceeding 48 as products of their factors.

2. construct rectangular pattern of numbers and use same to find factors of given numbers.

3. find missing factor of a given number.

4. distinguish between factors and multiples of given numbers.