# Mathematics Guides for JSS 1 Algebraic Processes – Simple Equations | Simplification of Algebraic Expression | The Use of Symbols

**M****ATHEMATICS 1**

**THEME – ALGEBRAIC PROCESSES**

**TOPIC 1 – SIMPLE EQUATIONS**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Word sentences charts.

2. Simple equation chart.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. translate word sentences into mathematical equations.

2. use mathematical equations to represent word sentences.

3. solve simple equations and cross-check the answers.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Translation of word problems into equations and vice versa.

2. Solution of simple equations.

**LESSON PRESENTATION **

Teacher’s Activities,1. Leads students to translate word sentences into mathematical equations.

2. Leads students to use mathematical equations to represent word sentences.

3. Guides students to solve simple equations, e.g. 5k + 7 = 22 and cross check their answers.

Student’s Activities,1. Translate word sentences into mathematical statements.

2. Mention the need to use mathematical statements to represent word sentences.

3. Solve given simple equations and cross check the answers.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Pupils to,

1. translate given word sentences into mathematical statements.

2. solve given simple equation problems.

**MATHEMATICS 2 **

**THEME – ALGEBRAIC PROCESSES**

**TOPIC 2 – SIMPLIFICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Charts showing terms and their coefficients.

2. Charts on worked examples on simplification of algebraic expressions.

3. Charts of examples on insertion/removal of brackets.

4. Qualitative aptitude chart.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify and collect like terms in a given expression.

2. identify the coefficient of a given algebraic term.

3. identify the positive and negative coefficients of a given algebraic term.

4. perform basic arithmetic operations on expressions of similar terms.

5. solve related word problems.

6. insert/remove brackets and simplify expressions.

7. solve quantitative aptitude problems on the use of brackets.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Like and unlike terms in algebraic expressions.

2. Identification of coefficients of terms of algebraic expressions.

3. Basic arithmetic operations applied to algebraic expressions of similar terms.

4. Collection and simplification of like and unlike terms in algebraic expressions.

5. Use of brackets.

6. Quantitative reasoning.

**LESSON PRESENTATION **

Teacher’s Activities,1. Guides students to identify the coefficient of algebraic terms.

2. Leads students to identify the coefficient of positive and negative terms in algebraic expressions.

3. Guides students to perform arithmetic operations on expressions of similar terms, e.g. 2x + 3x + 7x = 12x.

4. Leads students to solve related word problems.

5. Guides students to identify and collect like and unlike terms.

6. Leads students to simplify resulting expression.

7. Guides students to remove and insert brackets from and to expressions, respectively.

8. Leads students to simplify expressions such as (14m − 8) + (6m + 5).

9. Leads students to solve the problems in quantitative aptitude.

Student’s Activities,1. Identify like and unlike terms in an algebraic expression.

2. Identify coefficient of positive and negative terms in algebraic expressions.

3. Find the coefficient of positive and negative terms in algebraic expressions.

4. Perform arithmetic operations on expressions of similar terms.

5. Solve related word problems.

6. Identify and collect like terms in given algebraic expressions.

7. Simplify the resulting expression.

8. Collect like terms, insert or remove brackets and simplify the expression and find missing terms in related quantitative aptitude problems.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Pupils to,

1. identify like and unlike terms.

2. identify the difference between coefficient of positive and negative terms in a given expression.

3. solve given word problems on simplification of algebraic expressions.

4. identify and collect like terms of given expressions and simplify resulting expression.

5. simplify given expressions involving brackets.

**MATHEMATICS 3**

**THEME – ALGEBRAIC PROCESSES**

**TOPIC 3 – USE OF SYMBOLS Part 1**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Flash cards and open sentence charts.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. solve problems expressed in open sentences.

2. identify the relationship between addition and subtraction, multiplication and division.

3. use letters to represent symbols or shapes in open sentences.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Open sentences

2. Use of letters to represent symbols or shapes in open sentences.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

Teacher’s Activities,1. Guides students to find the missing number in an open statement using flash cards and open sentence charts ___ – 5 = 8.

2. Guides students to solve more problems.

3. Leads students to identify the relationship between addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division in open sentences.

4. Guides students to use letters to represent symbol such as 2 + n = 11

Student’s Activities,1. Find what the boxes represent.

2. Explain the relationship between addition and subtraction; and multiplication and division.

3. Solve more related problems.

4. Represent symbols with letters.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Pupils to,

1. find what given boxes in open sentences represent.

2. explain the relationship between:

(a) addition and subtraction.

(b) multiplication and division, in open sentences.

3. replace the boxes in given open sentence problems with letters.

**MATHEMATICS 3**

**THEME – ALGEBRAIC PROCESSES**

**TOPIC 3 – USE OF SYMBOLS Part 2**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Flash cards and open sentence charts.

2. Flash cards and charts showing word problems expressed in symbols.

3. Flash cards and charts, etc.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. solve open sentence problems involving two arithmetic operations.

2. solve word problems involving use of symbols.

3. solve quantitative aptitude problems on the use of symbols.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Solving open sentences with two arithmetic operations.

2. Word problems involving use of symbols.

3. Quantitative aptitude.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

Teacher’s Activities,Guides students to solve open sentences of the form

2 ( ) – 1 = 7 and

[ ] ÷ 2 + 3 = 8 using flash cards.

2. Guides students on how to translate word problems into mathematical expression involving symbols using Polya’s principles.

3. Leads students to solve quantitative aptitude problems on the use of symbols.

Student’s Activities,1. Solve open sentences problems with two arithmetic operations.

2. Solve problems on charts.

3. Translate related word problems into mathematical expressions involving symbols the problems.

4. Solve quantitative aptitude problems on the use of symbols.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Pupils to,

1. solve open sentence problems involving two arithmetic operations.

2. translate and solve given word problems into simple expressions involving symbols.

3. solve quantitative aptitude problems on the use of symbols.