Agriculture JSS 1 Curriculum Guides – Importance and Forms of Agriculture | Factors of Agricultural Production | Classes and Uses of Crop | Classes and Uses of Farm Animals | Methods of Weeds and Pests Control

 

THEME – CONCEPTS AND MEDIUM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

TOPIC 1 – IMPORTANCE AND FORMS OF AGRICULTURE

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Posters showing the importance of agriculture.

2. Pamphlets, handbills and charts showing type of agriculture.

3. Charts and pictures of various forms of agricultural activities.

4. Specimen of farm produce e.g yam, orange, etc.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the importance of agriculture.

2. explain the type of agriculture.

3. state forms of agricultural practices.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

INTRODUCTION

Agriculture can be define as the growing of crops, rearing of animals, processing and selling of agricultural products for the benefit of man (for man’s use).

There are four components of agriculture as stated in its meaning.

Growing or planting of crop, for examples – planting of rice, bean, yam, cocoa, banana, etc. Rearing of animals, for examples – goat, sheep, horse, camel, etc. Processing of agricultural products. Selling of agricultural products.

 

 

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIETY 

Agriculture in Nigeria like the rest of the world serves as:

1. Provision of food

2. Provision of clothing

3. Provision of shelter

4. Employment or job opportunities

5. Source of income

6. Source of medical herbs

7. Foreign exchange Earning

8. Provision of raw materials for industries

9. Provision of market for industrial goods

 

PROVISION OF FOOD 

Agriculture is the main source of food for the world population.

 

PROVISION OF CLOTHING 

Both cotton and wool clothes are products of agriculture.

The cotton is one of the growing crops while the wool are gotten from the animals. Leather shoes, belts and bags are animal skins.

 

PROVISION OF SHELTER 

There are different types of houses. One of the types is wooden houses.

Most roofing part of many houses are made up wood. While are some houses are completely built with wood.

 

EMPLOYMENT OR JOB OPPORTUNITY 

Agriculture is one of the oldest and most important occupations of mankind.

The main occupation of the most Nigerian rural settlements is farming.

While in urban areas, they involved in buying agricultural products from the farmers and selling these products to people in the cities.

Quick evaluation – Asks the people to mention 3 people in agriculture. 

 

SOURCE OF INCOME 

Agriculture is the main source of income to all the people in agriculture.

 

SOURCE OF MEDICAL HERBS 

Agriculture provides food, fruit, vegetable, leave, seed, trunk, grass and root used as medical herbs.

 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNING 

This is exporting agricultural products such as cocoa, groundnut, etc. to other countries. Exportation generate more income for the farmers.

 

PROVISION OF RAW MATERIALS FOR INDUSTRIES 

Agriculture provides raw materials for all agro – industries. Lets the students state the raw materials for making – sardine, milo, peak milk, leather bags, clothes, etc. 

 

PROVISION OF MARKET FOR INDUSTRIAL GOODS 

Some of the materials or tools used by farmers come from the industries. For examples – tractor, planter, harvester, fertilizer, different machines. All these are manufactured for agricultural use.

 

 

TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE LOCALITIES

1. Pastoral Farming

4. Arable Farming

3. Mixed Farming

5. Crop Rotation

6. Taungya Farming

7. Fish Farming

8. Livestock Farming

9. Shifting Cultivation

10. Land Rotation/Bush Fallowing

 

FORMS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COMMUNITIES

1. Growing Crops

2. Rearing of Livestock

3. Breeding Fish

4. Rearing of Fish (fishery)

5. Horticulture

6. Rearing of Snail/Heliculture

7. Apiculture/Bee Keeping

8. Salving of Farm Produce

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides class discussion on the importance of agriculture though agriculture.

2. guides class discussion on the type of agricultural practices.

3. guides class to discuss on forms of agricultural activities.

4. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. discuss the agricultural importance in their local communities.

2. discuss the forms of agriculture.

3. copy the board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. explain five importance of agriculture.

2. identify and explain three different types of agricultural practices.

3. name three forms of agricultural activities in their locality.

 

 

THEME – CONCEPTS AND MEDIUM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

TOPIC 2 – FACTORS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Flow chart of production processes.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. list the basic factors of production.

2. describe the uses of each in agricultural production.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION 

Land, labour, capital and management are the most essential elements or factors of production in agriculture. For productive purposes, the four are employed in combination.

 

1. LAND 

Land can be defined as one of the factor of agricultural production used for cultivation of crops, rearing of animals and agricultural factories.

Land is the free gift of nature available and used in the process of agricultural production.

It includes: plains/mountains, water, forest, air, etc.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND

  • It is a free gift of nature.
  • It is fixed in supply.
  • It has no cost of production. Land cannot be produced.
  • The price of land is varies depend on their location.
  • It is not movable.
  • The reward for land is rent.

 

REWARDS FOR LAND

Land can be bought or rent.

 

METHODS OF LAND IMPROVEMENTS

Land improvements are the actions taken to improve the quality of land and its availability for more usability.

Ways of improving the quality and its availability include –

  • Good drainage system
  • Good irrigation systems
  • Fencing
  • Landscaping
  • Parking lots and walkways

 

2. LABOUR 

Labour is both physical and mental efforts of man used in production.

It is human factor of production that work on other factors of production.

The reward for labour is wages and salaries.

 

TYPES OF LABOUR 

A. Professional Labour

Professional labour is labour with highest level of knowledge based education and managerial skills.

For example – the farm manager also known as the entrepreneur.

 

B. Skilled Labour

Skilled labour is labour that can operate complex machines to perform their task.

This labour received training and education in order to increase production.

 

C. Unskilled Labour

Unskilled labour is the labour that worked with their hands.

This lack the skills or training to perform other tasks.

 

D. Semi Skilled Labour

Semi skilled labour is the worker that had basic skills or training to operate simple machine.

This labour received more wages than unskilled labour.

For more info on types of labour – Prezi Dot Com

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF LABOUR

  • Labour is human factor of production.
  • Labour is mobile. That’s, it is movable factor of production.
  • Labour costs money.
  • The reward for labour is wages and salaries.
  • The reward is negotiable.

 

IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR

  • It aids growth and development.
  • It provides special skills.
  • It provides variety of skills.
  • It is an act factor of production.

 

3. CAPITAL 

Capital is the resource (money, wealth, machines or equipment) used for the production of more resources.

Capital is very important for setting up a farm business.

The reward for capital is interest.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITAL 

  • It is man made factor of production.
  • Its reward is interest.
  • It made production of goods and services possible.
  • It requires hardworking and savings to organize.
  • Source of capital is saving, gift from family and friends, loans, etc.

 

TYPES OF CAPITAL 

The two (2) major types of capital include:

A. Fixed Capital

Fixed capital includes physical assets of the agricultural business such as land and building, furniture and fittings, equipments and tools, machineries, etc.

Fixed capital is used on daily basis and using depreciated in value with time.

 

B. Current Capital 

Current capital is also known as working capital. It is the different between assets and liabilities of the agricultural business.

 

IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL

  • It aids production.
  • It attracts business investors.
  • It is used for buying raw materials.
  • It settles wages and salaries of labour.
  • It promotes goods and services.
  • It produces more capital.

 

4. MANAGEMENT (FARM MANAGER) 

Farm manager is one of the factors of agricultural production that organizes, manages and coordinates all other factors of agricultural production.

Farm manager minimums cost and maximums production in order to make profit.

The reward is profit and loss.

 

 

FUNCTIONS OF FARM MANAGER

  • He/she provides capital.
  • He/she bears the risk of business.
  • He/she formulate business policies.
  • He/she makes the business decisions.
  • He/she coordinates other factors of production.
  • He/she determines what to produce.
  • He/she employs labour.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. states the factors of production.

2. discusses the importance of each factor in production.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students pick one factor of production and write a short essay on it.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. mention three basic factors of production.

2. state the importance of each factor in production.

 

 

THEME – CONCEPTS AND MEDIUM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

TOPIC 3 –  CLASSES AND USES OF CROP

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Specimen of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds.

2. Crop sample pictures and charts depicting the various classes of crops.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify crop plant forms.

2. classify crops according to forms, life span, uses and types.

3. state the various uses of crops.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS

Crops can be classified based on forms, life span. uses and sources of nutrients.

 

FORMS  – MONOCOTYLEDONOUS AND DICOTYLEDONOUS 

Monocotyledonous is a plant with the seed having only one cotyledon.

Examples of Monocotyledonous – maize, guinea corn, ginger, banana, wheat, palm, onion, garlic, etc.

 

Dicotyledonous is a plant with the seed having only one cotyledon.

Examples of Dicotyledonous – bean, melon, groundnut, potato, tomato, pea, hibiscus, etc.

 

 

LIFE SPAN – ANNUAL, BIENNIAL AND PERENNIAL CROPS 

Annual Crops 

These are crop that complete the life cycle within a year. For examples, maize, yam, etc.

 

BIENNIAL CROPS 

These are crop that complete the life cycle within a year. For examples, ginger, pineapple, cassava, etc.

 

PERENNIAL CROPS 

These are crop that complete the life cycle within a year. For examples, cocoa, mango, orange, etc.

 

USES OF CROPS

1. Food crops

  • Cereals
  • Tubers – yam, cassava and potatoes
  • Pulses
  • Fruits and vegetables – potatoes, tomatoes, and onions.

 

2. Oil crops

  • Palm
  • Soybean
  • Groundnut

 

3. Spices

  • Tomatoes
  • Onions
  • Ginger
  • Chili powder
  • Black pepper
  • Cinnamon

 

4. Beverage

  • Tea
  • Coffee
  • Cocoa

 

5. Fiber crops

  • Cotton
  • Jute
  • Kenaf
  • Hemp
  • Ramie
  • Sisal

 

SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS

1. Carbohydrates are energy given food and found in food like rice, noodles, bread and other products that have grains.

2. Fats and oils are for growth and function normally and help with tissue growth. They are found in foods like meat, fish, whole eggs, vegetables, nuts.

3. Minerals are Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Potassium and Zinc. Minerals can be found meat, fish, poultry, grains.

4. Proteins are for growth, maintain or repair tissues and found in food like rice, beans, dairy products, fish, meat, eggs.

5. Vitamins help to regulate and boost immune system of the body. They can be found in almost any product on the Earth.

6. Water support life and needed on regular basis.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides discussion on various plant forms.

2. displays samples of crops from each of the classes for students to see.

3. provides students with different types of crops and ask them to classify based on forms, life span, uses and types.

4. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. sorts crops into various classes.

2. classify crops according to forms, life, span, types and uses.

3. copy the board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. list two crop plant forms.

2. sort and classify the specimen provided into the plant forms.

3. list two external features of crop plant forms.

4. classify the displayed crops based on the life span.

5. match the crop samples with their respective uses.

6. classify the following crops – maize, beans, waterleaf, soya-beans, cassava, pepper, cocoa etc. according to their forms, uses and life span.

 

 

THEME – CONCEPTS AND MEDIUM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

TOPIC 4 – CLASSES AND USES OF FARM ANIMALS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. pictures/charts of various specimen of the farm animal forms like bull, goat, dog, turkey, fish, etc.

2. charts and picture of various farm animals.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe different forms of farm animals.

2. identify the basic characteristics of different farm animals.

3. list farm animals found in their locality.

4. classify farm animals based on size, habitat, etc.

5. state the uses of farm animals.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

INTRODUCTION TO FARM ANIMALS

Farm animals are animals that are kept for agricultural purposes. This includes such domesticated animals as cows and chickens, and wild animals that are raised in confinement, including mink and fish.

 

TYPES OF FARM ANIMALS 

1. Poultry

Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers. For example – chicken, turkey, etc.

 

2. Aquatic

An aquatic animal is any animal that lives in water for most or all of its lifetime. For example – fish, crab, crayfish, etc.

 

3. Pet Animals

Pet animals are animals kept by human beings as a source of companionship, pleasure or entertainment rather than as livestock, work or test (experiment). For example – dog, cat, bird, etc.

 

4. Work Animals

Working animals are animals that are trained by humans to perform specific tasks such as farming, transportation, etc. For example – cattle, water buffalo, yak, elephants, llamas and camels.

 

5. Diary Animals 

Dairy animals are are cattle bred animals that have the ability produce milk in large quantities. For example – cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels.

 

6. Guard Animals 

Guard animals are animals that are trained to detect drugs and dangerous items, watch and guard property against unwanted and unexpected humans or animal intruders.

 

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARM ANIMALS

1. They are living things.

2. Some of them feed on grasses, grains or both.

3. Some of them are extremely big or small and moderate.

4. Some of them walk, fly, swim, etc.

5. Some of them are food.

6. Some of them have hair while some have feathers.

7. Etc.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON:

1. Size

2. Habitat

3. Mammals and Non Mammals

4. Farm Animals and their Young Ones

5. Uses

 

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SIZE

Farm Animals are classified according to their sizes. That’s farm Animals with small or large body sizes.

1. Large Farm Animals

These are animals with large body sizes. For examples, cattle, camels, horses, donkeys, etc.

 

2. Small Farm Animals

These are animals with small body sizes. For examples, chicken, rabbits, goats, dogs, etc.

 

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON HABITAT 

1. Aquatic (Water) Animals

These are animals that lived and survived in water. For examples, fish, crabs, crocodiles, crayfish, etc.

 

2. Terrestrial (Land) Animals

Most farm animals live on land. These are animals that lived and survived on land. They feed and breed there. For examples, cow, dogs, chickens, etc.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MAMMALS AND NON MAMMALS 

1. MAMMALS (VIVIPAROUS FARM ANIMALS) 

Mammals are animals that give birth to their young ones alive and have their bodies covered with hair or fur. These animals produce milk for their young. These animals are called viviparous animals. These animals are goats, dogs, cow, etc.

 

2. NON MAMMALS (OVIPAROUS FARM ANIMALS) 

Non Mammals animals that lay their eggs in order to produce their offspring. These animals are called oviparous animals. These are chickens, fish, tortoise, etc.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STOMACH TYPES 

1. Ruminant Animals

Ruminants farm animals are animals with complex stomach. They feed mostly on grass. For examples – goat, cow, sheep, etc.

 

2. Non Ruminant Animals 

Non ruminants are other animals that feed mostly on tubers, grains, beans and fruits. For examples – pig, fish, chicken, etc.

 

FARM ANIMALS AND THEIR YOUNG ANIMALS 

1. Goat – kid

2. Dog – puppy

3. Pig – piglet

4. Chicken – chick

5. Sheep – lamb

6. Cow – calf

 

 

USES OF FARM ANIMALS 

Farm animals are useful to man in different ways –

1. Milk (dairy) producers – cow, buffalo, goat, camel, horse, etc.

2. Meat producers – cow, buffalo, chicken, etc.

3. Egg producers – poultry, fish, etc.

4. Work (beast of burden) – horse, donkey, mule, etc.

5. Sports and guard – chicken, dog, etc.

6. Source of hides or skin – hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use, e.g. cattle, etc.

7. Source of manure

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides students in observing and identifying farm animals.

2. displays charts showing external features of some farm animals.

3. explains the various uses of farm animals.

4. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. observe and identify various forms of farm animals based on their district features.

2. familiarize self with various types of farm animals by studying the charts and pictures.

3. discuss the uses of farm animals.

4. copy the board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. state the features of the different forms of farm animals.

2. list five farm animals.

3. match farm animals with their uses.

 

 

THEME – CONCEPTS AND MEDIUM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

TOPIC 5 –  METHODS OF WEEDS AND PESTS CONTROL

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts and pictures of Weeds

2. Weeds specimen

3. Weed album

4. Herbicides

5. Charts and pictures of the pests of the Locality, and

6. Specimens of insect pest, formalin, kerosene, (for preservation), insect box, etc.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. list the characteristics of weeds.

2. indicate the uses of weeds.

3. briefly discuss methods of weed control.

4. state the effects of weed control methods on vegetation and soil.

5. classify insect pests according to mouth parts.

6. describe the nature of damage done by crop plant pests.

7. state effects of pests on the crop yield.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

INTRODUCTION (MEANING OF WEEDS) 

Weeds are unwanted plants growing in the farm and other places. Any plant not planted on the farmland by the farmer and grow where they are not wanted is called a weed.

Weeds compete with the grown plant for food, water, air and space, such that the wanted plant may eventually die.

A good example of weeds is grass that is growing in a yam farm. Such a plant must be removed in time.

 

 

COMMON WEEDS

1. Elephant grass

2. Guinea grass

3. Spear grass

4. Giant star grass

5. bahama grass

6. Carpet grass

7. Pig weed.

 

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS 

1. Easily Dispersed 

Plants cannot move but have many ways of getting around and grow easily. With the activities of man and animals make it easily spread or dispersed.

Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water, animals, and humans.

 

2. Long Dormancy 

Plants do not grow easily even under favorable environmental conditions for germination including, temperature, water, light, etc.

 

USES OF WEEDS TO THE FARMERS 

1. Weeds protect the soil from wind and water erosion.

2. Weeds retain the soil nutrients from plants use.

3. Weed keep and protect the microorganisms that increases soil nutrients for plants use.

4. Weeds are used cover yam from burning after planting.

5. Weeds are used for crops preservation and packaging.

6. Weeds are used for mat production.

7. Weeds are used for feeding livestock.

8. Weeds are used for herbal medicine.

9. Some of them are actually crops. For example, maize is a weed, if grown on yam farmland. The farmer may decide to keep it it is healthy and useful for yam.

 

 

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WEED

1. It reduces the crops production.

2. It reduces the quality of harvest.

3. It increases the cost of crops production.

4. It may poise the animals.

5. The cost of controlling weed is high.

6. It causes quicker wear and tear of farm implements.

 

EFFECTS OF WEED CONTROL METHODS ON VEGETATION AND SOIL 

1. Pollution of soil and ground water.

2. Contamination of livestock pasture.

3. Expose the soil to erosion – wind and water.

4. Destroy soil micro organisms.

5. It reduces the aquatic animals.

 

 

CONTROL METHODS ON VEGETATION AND SOIL

1. Biological Control 

This process involves using animals to feed on the weeds on a farm of tree crops that are fully grown, such as a citrus orchard, rubber plantation and palm plantation.

One disadvantage of this method is that the animals may also eat and destroy the wanted plants in the process.

 

2. Cultural Control 

Cultural control is the removal of weed by hands, cutlass or hoe.

It involves uprooting weeds with hands, cutlass or hoe.

This is also called manual control.

 

3. Chemical

A chemical is a man-made liquid or powder used for controlling or killing weeds.

It is also used for controlling or killing pets and diseases. This control is called weedicides.

 

MEANING OF CROP PESTS

Pests are organism that are harmful or damage farm crops. Common crop pests are as follows:

1. Beetle

2. Weevil

3. Grasshopper

4. Locust

5. Caterpillar

6. Termite

7. Rodents

8. Quela birds

9. Bats

10. Monkeys

 

 

CONTROL METHODS ON VEGETATION AND SOIL

1. Biological Control 

This process involves using animals to feed on the pests on the farm.

One disadvantage of this method is that the animals may also eat and destroy the wanted plants in the process.

 

2. Cultural Control 

Cultural control is the removal (or killing) of pests (insects) by hands, cutlass or trap.

This is also called manual control.

 

3. Chemical Control 

A chemical is a man-made liquid or powder used for controlling or killing pests and diseases spread by pests.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF INSECT PESTS BASED ON MOUTH PARTS 

1. Piercing and Sucking Insects 

1. Cotton stainers

2. Green shield bugs

3. White flies

4. Mealy bugs

5. Mirids/capsids

6. Fruit-piercing moths

7. Coreid bugs

8. Scale insects

9. Aphids

10. Cocoa thrips

 

2. Biting and Chewing Insects 

1. Locusts

2. Grasshoppers

3. Termites

4. Leaf worms

5. Armyworms

6. Crickets

8. Budworm

9. Caterpillar

10. Stick insects

11. Mantis

12. Rhinoceros beetles

 

3. Boring Insects 

1. Yam beetles

2. Beam beetles

3. Rice weevils

4. Maize weevils

5. Sorghum weevils

6. Stem borers

7. Larvae of Lepidoptera e.g. butterfly, moth

8. Pod borers

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DAMAGE DONE BY THE CROP PESTS 

There are two (2) kinds of damage done by the crop pests – direct and indirect damage.

 

DIRECT DAMAGE 

Direct damage is feeding on crops leaves, burrows in the stems, fruits and leaves.

 

INDIRECT DAMAGE 

Indirect damage is the pests (insect pests) infect and transmit diseases like bacterial, viral, or fungal infection into a crop.

 

EFFECTS OF CROP PESTS ON YIELD

1. Pests infected seeds, crops, and vegetables.

2. Pests reduce market value of farm crops.

3. Pests reduce the quality of crops.

4. Pests eat up leaves, burrows in stems, fruit, or roots of crops

5. Pests reduce crop productivity.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. demonstrates chemical control of weeds.

2. highlights the effects of weeds control methods on vegetation and soil.

3. displays pictures and charts of crop pests of the locality.

4. displays specimen of insect pests.

5. summarizes the lessons on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. practice weed control on the school farm.

2. study pictures and charts to familiarize self with the local crop plant pest.

3. bring insect pests and make insect box.

4. copy the board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. mention two characteristics of weeds.

2. state two uses of weeds.

3. state two weed control methods.

4. explain two effects of weed control on the environment.

5. mention two classes of crop pests.

6. list two piercing and sucking insect and three biting and chewing insects.

7. describe the nature of damage done by crop plant pests.