# History of Computer – Early Mechanical Calculating Device (Later Development – Abacus) – Primary 3

COMPUTER STUDIES

(INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY)

BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

FIRST TERM

WEEK 3

PRIMARY 3

THEME – BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS

PREVIOUS LESSON – History of Computer – Early Counting Devices (Primary 3)

TOPIC – HISTORY OF COMPUTER

LEARNING AREA

1. Introductory Activities

2. Early Mechanical Calculating Devices

3. Later Development – Abacus

4. The use of Abacus for Basic Arithmetic such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. identify abacus among all early mechanical calculating devices

2. describe abacus counting device.

3. operate abacus counting device.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

Calculating Device

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:

Abacus

METHOD OF TEACHING – Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.

Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

1. Scheme of Work

2. 9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum

3. Course Book

4. All Relevant Material

5. Online Information

CONTENT OF THE LESSON

INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES

Teacher’s/Activities – Displays Abacus device and guide the pupils to use it for basic calculations. Then, asks them to describe what Abacus is and what is used for.

Listen to the pupils and summary their on the board.

HISTORY OF COMPUTER (CONTINUATION)

Before the invention of computer, fingers, toes, seeds, etc. are used for counting. But when things to be counted get increasingly or become too many, fingers and toes, or stones, pebbles, cowries and seeds in counting are no longer used, and then the computer was invented.

Then, computer was made as a counting machine.

EARLY MECHANICAL DEVICES

Early Mechanical Devices are device invented after early counting devices can be used for too many things.

Examples of Early Mechanical Devices

1. Abacus – The first computer called Ancient counting machine.

2. Pascaline

3. Slide rule

4. Stepped reckoner

5. Analytical engine

7. Electronic tabulating machine

8. Mark 1

EARLY MECHANICAL CALCULATING DEVICE – ABACUS

The first computer was called the Abacus counting machine.

Abacus can be used for addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.

PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION USING ABACUS FOR BASIC ARITHMETIC SUCH ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Teacher’s/Pupil’s Activities –

1. 5 + 4, using fingers only.

2. 13 + 8, using fingers and toes.

3. 13 + 8, using fingers only.

4. 15 – 7, any of the stated devices.

5. 5 x 5, any of the stated devices.

6. 20 ÷ 5, any of the stated devices.

WORKBOOK WEEKLY ASSESSMENT

PRESENTATION

To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:

1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;

2. Shows pictures of each computing device to the class.

Pupil’s Activities – Bring pictures/cut outs of Abacus computing devices.

3. Demonstrates the use of Abacus.

Pupil’s Activities – Use the Abacus to solve different arithmetic problems.

CONCLUSION

• To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.

LESSON EVALUATION

Pupils to:

1. mention two mechanical calculating devices.

2. identify the land marks in the transition of early calculating devices to present day computers.

3. identify abacus among all early mechanical calculating devices

4. describe abacus counting device.

5. operate abacus counting device.