Agriculture JSS 2 Curriculum Guides – Processes of Agricultural Production – Agricultural Practices | Crop Propagation and Cultural Practices | Forests and Forest Uses | Animal Feeds and Feeding | Fishery | Farm Structures and Buildings | Animal Pests and Disease Control

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

TOPIC 1 – AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Simple farm tools – Home, Cutlass, Rake, Hand trowel, etc.

2. School farm.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe pre-planting, planting, post planting, harvesting and post harvesting operations.

2. perform the various cultural practices above.

3. explain the benefits of timely harvesting of crops.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

1. PRE-PLANTING OPERATIONS

  • Choice of site
  • Clearing
  • Stumping
  • Plotting
  • Tilling/ploughing, harrowing, riding, etc.
  • Seed selection
  • Nursery and nursery practices.

 

2. PLANTING OPERATIONS 

  • Seed treatment
  • Spacing and planting

 

3. POST PLANTING OPERATIONS

  • Thinning
  • Supplying
  • Mulching
  • Manuring/fertilizer application
  • Harvesting

 

EFFECTS OF TIMELY HARVESTING VERSUS LATE HARVESTING 

HARVEST

Harvest is the process of collecting different farm produces at their own appropriate time. A timely harvest can help to maximize potential grain yield, maximize grain quality and minimize field losses.

There are two (2) operations after harvest, post and late harvest.

 

A. POST-HARVESTING OPERATION 

Post harvest is the stage of collecting farm produce immediately without at any delay, most especially when the crops are green. That’s, processing of crops into useable forms after harvesting which include cleaning, sorting, packing and storing.

The effect of post harvest operation ensures good grain quality and high market value.

 

B. LATE HARVESTING OPERATION

Late harvest is the operation that allows the crops stay longer than expected, mostly for seedling, preservation or further processing.

The effect of late harvest operation lead to excessive losses if not properly monitored.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. displays charts and pictures board.

2. guides students to identify and describe different pre-planting operations.

3. demonstrates some of these operations.

4. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. study charts and pictures provided and identify the various operations depicted.

2. watch teacher demonstrations.

3. perform the various planting operations.

4. copy board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. describe briefly activities involved in pre-planting, planting, post planting, harvesting, post harvesting operations.

2. demonstrate the various operations.

3. state three advantages of timely harvesting of crops.

 

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

TOPIC 2 – CROP PROPAGATION AND CULTURAL PRACTICES

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures and charts of crops propagated by: seeds and vegetative organs.

2. Crop propagation specimens (seeds, vegetative organs), soil, tins/pots, water, hand trowel, etc.

3. Simple farm tools – Hoe, Cutlass, Rake, Hand trowel, etc.

4. School farm.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define crop propagation.

2. state methods of crop propagation.

3. state the advantages and disadvantages of crop propagation methods.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

MEANING OF CROP PROPAGATION

Crop propagation is the process of growing or planting new ones either by seeds, cuttings, or other plant parts

 

METHODS OF CROP PROPAGATION

There are two (2) types of propagation, sexual and asexual.

A. SEXUAL PROPAGATION 

Sexual propagation is the process of growing new plants by seeds or spores. It is also known as seed propagation.

For example – maize, bean, etc.

 

B. ASEXUAL PROPAGATION 

Asexual propagation is the process of growing new plants by using roots, stems, or leaves of a parent plant. It is also known as vegetative propagation.

For example – cassava, sweet patato, etc.

 

ADVANTAGES OF PROPAGATION 

A. BY SEEDS 

It is easy to carry, store, procure, sow, etc.

 

B. VEGETABLE ORGANS

1. It is more resistant to diseases and pests.

2. It is matures and produces early.

3. It can withstand adverse soil and weather conditions, etc.

 

 

DISADVANTAGES OF PROPAGATION BY

A. SEED

1. It reduces the amount for consumption.

2. It does not germinate easily due to dormancy.

 

B. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

1. It is prones to diseases.

2. The plant is always short lived.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. displays charts and pictures on crop propagation.
2. collects and displays samples of seeds and vegetative organs of named crop plants.
3. demonstrates some of these operations, e.g. Thinning, Supplying, Mulching etc.
4. supervizes practical on cultural practices.
5. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. study charts and pictures provided and list crops propagated vegetatively and by seeds

2. demonstrate crop propagation – by seed, vegetative organs.

3. copy board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. briefly explain crop propagation. 
2. identify two methods of crop propagation.
3. state two advantages of propagation by seed and vegetative organs.
4. list three examples of crops propagated by seed, vegetative and organs.

 

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

TOPIC 3 – FORESTS AND FOREST USES

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures and charts showing forest products.

2. Real product where available.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe forests.

2. list the resources of the forest.

3. state the uses of forest resources.

4. explain the effect of forest on the environment.

5. state the various human activities that affect the forest.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

TYPES OF FORESTS

Forest is a large area covered by tree and undergrowth. There are three (3) of forest – mangrove (swampy), rain forest (many trees) and derive forest (few trees).

1. MANGROVE (SWAMPY) 

Mangrove is a wet area, seahorse or riverbank that is covered by tree. It is also known as swampy.

 

2. RAINFOREST 

Rainforest is an area that is covered with too many trees.

 

3. DRIVE FOREST 

Derive forest is an area that is covered with few tress.

 

FOREST RESOURCES

1. Trees

2. Wildlife (animals)

3. Fruits (Foodstuffs)

4. Various herbs

5. Shelter for wild animals

 

 

USES OF FOREST RESOURCES

1. It provides timber for building house and canoe, construction of bridges, railway carriages, making furniture and fitting, etc.

2. It is a source of fire wood and charcoal for fuel in homes and in industries.

3. It is used for making paper and rayon industries.

4. It is a source of honey, food and medicines.

5. It is used for making beewax for candles, medicines, shoe-making, etc.

6. It is used for making baskets, mats, chairs, ropes, walking sticks and umbrella handles.

7. They provide sandal wood for carved boxes and small

8. It is used for making tools needed in farming, fishing, hunting, and livestock production.

9. It is used as game reserve.

10. It prevents or reduces soil and water erosion.

11. It reduces air and noise pollution.

12. It conserves the soil and water.

13. It homses the wildlife.

14. It serves as a tourist centers.

 

EFFECT OF FOREST ON THE ENVIRONMENT

1. It protects the environment.

2. It increases the soil fertility.

3. It reduces water evaporation.

4. It beautifies the environment.

5. It purifies the air and water.

6. It preserve and improve soil formation, etc.

 

 

HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT THE FOREST

1. Clearing/deforestation

2. Hunting

3. Bush burning

4. Farming

5. Depletion of wild life

6. Mining and industrialization, etc.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. facilitates discussion on resource, potentials of the forest, forest products, e.g. fruits, gums, animals, etc.

2. visits to the saw mill or carpenter.

3. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. state resources obtained from the forest and discuss their uses.

2. copy board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. describe a forest.

2. list five resources found in the forest.

3. state five uses of the forest.

4. describe five effects of the forest on the environment.

5. list five human activities which result in loss of forest resources.

 

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

TOPIC 4 – ANIMAL FEEDS AND FEEDING

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Samples of feeds eg groundnut cakes, hay, including poultry feeds, etc.

2. Feeding tools – silage feeding trough, etc.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the meaning of feed.

2. list types of feeds stuffs.

3. mention feeding tools.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

MEANING AND TYPES OF FEEDS

Animal Feeds are the food given to farm animals for growth and reproduction.

Animals need feed on daily basis for them to grow and reproduce. There are two basic types – fodder and forage.

 

1. FODDER 

These are foods given to the farm animals which including plants cut and carried to them.

 

2. FORAGE 

Forage is a plant material which mainly plant leaves and stems eaten by grazing farm animals.

That’s, plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops.

Forage are cut and carried to farm animals as fodder. For example, silage, hay and chaff.

Fodder and forage are classified into,

  • Energy yielding feeds
  • Protein yielding feeds
  • Mineral and vitamins yielding feeds.

 

FEEDING TOOLS 

1. Feeding troughs

2. Drinker set

3. Hay Racks

4. Bowl

5. Mangers

6. Self-feeders

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. exhibits samples of feedstuffs such as groundnut cake, palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake, forage, silage, hay, etc.

2. displays feeding tools.

3. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. identify the various feeding tools.

2. identify the nutrients got from the various samples of feedstuffs.

3. Use6the feedstuffs to feed farm animals.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. state what animal feed stand for.

2. list three types of feedstuffs.

3. name two feeding tools.

 

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

TOPIC 5 – FISHERY

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures and charts on fish and fish products.

2. Fishing nets, basket, fishing hook, etc.

3. Visit to a near by fishery.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define fishery.

2. classify fishes on the basis of habitat and morphology.

3. state the uses of fish and fish products.

4. identify methods of fishing.

5. state risk factors associated with fish farming.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

DEFINITION OF FISHERY

Fishery is a commercial activity that deals with raising or harvesting, processing and selling fish, shellfish and other aquatic life on a large scale.

 

CLASSES OF FISH BASED ON

1. HABITAT 

Habitat is a place where an organism makes its home. It is a place that meets all the environmental conditions an organism needs to survive and reproduction.

Classes of fish according to their habitat are –

A. Freshwater fish

A freshwater fish are fish that lives in fresh water such as rivers and lakes with less salt. For example – catfish, charr, cisco, mooneye, gar, shiner, trout, etc.

 

B. Saltwater fish

A freshwater fish are fish that lives in saltwater such as oceans or salt lakes. Saltwater fish is also known as marine fish.

Marine fish are classified according to their feeding habits,

  • Herbivorous are fish that feed on plant materials.
  • Carnivorous are fish that feed on other fishes or animals.
  • Omnivorous are fish that feed on plants, animals, fungi, algae and bacteria.

 

2. MORPHOLOGY

Fish morphology is the shape, size, and structure of body parts of different fish. This is classified as bony and cartilaginous fish.

  • Bony fish are tilapia, mudfish, mackerel, croaker, catfish, etc.
  • Cartilaginous fish are shark, dolphin, etc.

 

3. OTHER TYPES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS 

These are shell fish such as crab, prawn, reptile- turtle, crocodile mammals – hippopotamus, whale.

 

FISH PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA

1. Sardine

2. Titus

3. Fish pie and roll

4. Cold liver capsules

5. Stock fish, etc.

 

USES OF FISH

1. It serves as food.

2. It serves as medicine.

3. It serves as animal feed.

4. It serves as fish glue.

5. It serves as a source of oil

6. It serves as fertilizer/emulsion.

7. It serves as a source of income.

8. It provides employment opportunities.

 

METHODS OF FISHING

1. Hook and line method

2. Casting net method

3. Trap such as using net, hook and line, pot, basket, etc.

4. Fence method

5. Draining water method – manual or mechanical such as pumping machine.

6. Trawl fishing method

7. Chemical method

 

 

RISK FACTORS IN WATER AND FISH FARMING

A risk factor in water and fish farming is anything that increases the chance of getting a disease through,

1. Polluting water with chemicals/industrial effluents.

2. Contaminating fish with chemicals used for catching fish.

3. Channeling sewage and other waste into the river, lake, etc.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. arranges a visit to a near-by fish farm.

2. presents pictures and charts on fish and fish products.

3. displays fish and the fish products.

4. practice how to mend fishing net.

5. discuss the effects of chemicals on fish and their environment.

5. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. examine and identify various types of fish and other aquatic organisms displayed.

2. identify various fishing equipment displayed.

3. bring samples of fish and fish products.

4. explain suitable environment for fish farming.

5. copy board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. define fishery.

2. classify fishes based on,

a) habitat and

b) morphology.

3. state two uses of fish and fish products.

4. write three methods of fishing.

5. state how water and fish can be contaminated.

 

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

TOPIC 6 – FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Pictures and charts and relevant textbooks showing farm structures.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe and identify various types of farm structures and buildings.

2. list the uses of farm structures.

3. state the method of maintaining farm structures and building.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

FARM STRUCTURES AND FARM BUILDINGS

FARM STRUCTURES 

Farm structures are different types of physical constructions that are put up in a farm for the purpose of livestock and crop production. Farm structures must be located in suitable areas for a farmer’s ease of use.

These structures help increase efficiency of agricultural production. Farm structures are different from farm buildings.

For example – the barn, silos, paddock, fish pond, etc. made of farm structure.

  • Barn – is a structure used for storing crops or housing livestock.
  • Silos – is a cylinder container used for storing large grains or fermented feeds.
  • Paddock – is an enclosed area used for pasturing or exercising animals like horse.
  • Fishpond – is an artificial lake or basin used for fish production.
  • Rhombus – is a lock lake used for storing crops.

 

FARM BUILDINGS

Farm buildings are parts of parts of farm structures mostly used as, pen, store, office, utility building, security post, etc.

 

USES OF FARM STRUCTURES AND FARM BUILDINGS

1. It is used for easy administration and management of farming activities.

2. It is used for preserve or reserve the farm products.

3. It is used to increase agricultural products.

4. It is used for accommodation for the staff.

5. It helps increase efficiency of agricultural products.

 

 

MAINTENANCE OF FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

1. Constant checking to ensure that the farm structures buildings are OK.

2. Regular cleaning, washing and dusting appropriate environment, materials or parts.

3. Constant oiling mechanical parts before or after use.

4. The use of safe insecticides and pesticides.

5. Repairing faulty or damaged parts.

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. arranges for learners to visit commercial farm.

2. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. use pictures and charts to identify farm structures and buildings.

2. copy board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. list farm structures.

2. state two uses of farm structures.

3. mention two methods of maintaining farm structures.

4. draw some farm structures.

 

 

THEME – PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

TOPIC 7 – ANIMAL PESTS AND DISEASE CONTROL

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures and charts of diseases of farm animals, disease organisms.

2. Preserved specimens of diseases causing organisms.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. list farm animal diseases.

2. state modes of transmission of farm animal diseases.

3. identify symptoms of farm animal diseases.

4. state effects of diseases on the farm animals.

5. state some methods of prevention and control.

 

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

FARM ANIMAL DISEASES

Farm animal diseases are illness unhealthy or abnormal condition in the body of farm animals. These illnesses result in changes in the well-being of these animals.

 

TYPES OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASES

1. BACTERIA

1. Mastisis

2. Contagious abortion in ruminants, pigs, etc.

 

2. FUNGAL 

Ring worm (all farm animals)

 

3. VIRAL 

Foot and mouth diseases (all animals except poultry).

 

4. PROTOZOAN 

1. Coccidiosis in poultry and rabbit.

2. Prypanosomiasis – nagana (cattle).

 

5. WORMS (all farm animals)

 

6. NUTRITIONAL (Bloat (cattle)

 

MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASES 

1. Contact with the infected animals

2. Contact with discharges

3. Vector (tsetse fly), etc.

 

 

SYMPTOMS OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASES

The symptoms of farm animals diseases of farm animal diseases include –

1. Enlarged udder

2. Sores

3. High fever

4. Blood stained

5. Diarrhea

6. Loss of weight

7. Loss of hair

8. Reduced productivity

9. Abortion

10. Death

 

EFFECTS OF DISEASES ON FARM ANIMALS 

1. Reduce productivity

2. Loss of appetite

3. Loss of weight

4. Death

 

 

METHODS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL 

1. Adopting good sanitation practices

2. Medication/immunization

3. Isolation/disposal, etc

 

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. displays pictures and charts of disease organisms and dead animals.

2. develops charts on casual organisms, symptoms and animals affected.

3. invites veterinary personnel as a guest speaker.

4. summarizes the lesson on the board.

 

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. visit abattoir to observe meat inspection.

2. discuss animal disease causing organisms and disease symptoms.

3. carryout good sanitation practices on the school farm animals.

4. observe charts and pictures and familiarize themselves with the symptoms and animals affected

5. copy board summary.

 

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher asks students to,

1. list five farm animal diseases.

2. mention four organisms that cause farm animal diseases.

3. state four modes of transmission of farm animal diseases.

4. describe three symptoms of farms animal diseases.

5. state three methods of prevention/control of farm animal diseases.

 

 

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