PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PATHOGENS, DISEASES AND DISEASES
PREVIOUS LESSON – BASIC SWIMMING SKILLS (PRIMARY 6)
TOPIC: COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
1. Meaning of Communicable Diseases
2. Ways of Contacting These Diseases
3. Nature of Communicable Diseases
4. Preventive Measures
By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and be able to –
1. Recall the meaning of communicable diseases;
2. Explain the nature of the following diseases: malaria, measles, mumps, pneumonia, poliomyelitis, rabies, HIV/AIDS, tetanus, typhoid, cold, whooping cough, gonorrhoea, tuberculosis, cholera, vaginitis, syphilis, herpes;
3. List preventive measures of communicable diseases.
The pupils are required to already have learned communicable diseases.
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of:
METHOD OF TEACHING – Choose a suitable and appropriate methods for the lessons.
Note – Irrespective of choosing methods of teaching, always introduce an activities that will arouse pupil’s interest or lead them to the lessons.
Scheme of Work
9 – Years Basic Education Curriculum
All Relevant Material
Online Information – SA Health, Nature.com, Dr. Axe, Princes Edward Island
Relevant link – Third Term Scheme of Work and Plan Lesson Note for Physical and Health Education Primary 4 Primary 5 and Primary 6 Links
CONTENT OF THE LESSON
LESSON ONE – INTRODUCTION
Communicable diseases are diseases that can be spread from one person to another and cause a large number of people to get sick.
Germs that may cause communicable diseases are spread in a number of ways including:
1. physical contact with an infected person, through contact with skin (Staphylococcus aureus), sexual contact (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis), fecal/oral contact (rotavirus), or respiratory droplets (influenza, mumps)
2. contact with a contaminated surface or object (norovirus), food (salmonella, E. coli), blood (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C), or water (cholera).
2. bites from insects or animals capable of passing the disease (West Nile virus, Lyme disease and rabies); and
4. through the air (tuberculosis and measles).
NATURE OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
1. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
COVID 19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.
Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.
2. Ebola virus
Ebola virus is an infectious agent and one of the viruses that can cause haemorraghic fever, a severe infectious disease characterized by high fever and bleeding, in humans and some monkeys.
Malaria is a mosquito – borne disease that can cause infected people to become very sick with high fever, chills, and flu – like illness.
It can also cause death.
Measles are spread when an infected person talks, breathes, coughs or sneezes tiny particles containing infectious agents into the air.
Early in the infection, symptoms may include: fever, tiredness, cough, sore throat, runny nose, sore eyes, photophobia (discomfort when looking at light).
Mumps are caused by an infection of the virus called paramyxovirus, which usually attacks the glands in the neck and causes swollen, sore throats.
The first sign of mumps is swelling and pain.
Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria that is spread through contact with the penis, vagina, anus or mouth of an infected partner.
During childbirth, an infected mother can also transmit gonorrhea to the baby.
Symptoms include painful urination and abnormal discharge from the penis or vagina. In some cases, gonorrhoea has no symptoms.
7. Chicken pox
Chicken pox is very contagious and spreads easily from person to person.
Chicken pox can spread even without direct contact since the virus can travel through the air via tiny respiratory droplets that are breathed in.
It can also be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person’s skin fluids.
The most characteristic symptom is an itchy, blister-like rash on the skin.
LESSON TWO – PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
You can do your part to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. For example:
1. Make sure your immunizations are up to date. Both children and adults need to be immunized at certain times.
2. Wash your hands often.
3. Know how to prepare food safely.
4. Practice safer sex.
5. Avoid contact with wildlife (such as feeding or petting wild animals) and make sure your pets stay healthy by getting them vaccinated by a vet.
REVISION AND WEEK 7 LESSON ASSESSMENT (TEST)
As stated in performance objectives or lesson evaluation.
To deliver the lesson, the teacher adopts the following steps:
1. To introduce the lesson, the teacher revises the previous lesson. Based on this, he/she asks the pupils some questions;
2. Discusses the nature of communicable diseases;
Pupil’s Activities – Listen to the teacher’s explanation.
3. Discusses the preventive measures;
Pupil’s Activities – list preventive measures.
- To conclude the lesson for the week, the teacher revises the entire lesson and links it to the following week’s lesson.
1. explain the nature of five different communicable diseases;
2. state one preventive measure for each disease.